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On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs
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|Subject: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/6/2010, 8:03 pm|| |
Stuart Lachs is a brilliant writer and critic on the current Zen scene. For those who want to take a deeper look at the entire institution of the Zen master, the lineage, and the structure and mindset these creates, it is worth reading his essays. They are all posted on line in different places, but i thought it would make it easier i posted some of them here -- and to start a discussion -- so i will cut and paste.
Much of what he discusses relates directly to Shasta and Kennett. Stuart gave me permission to post any of his writings on this site, so there are no copyright or permission issues
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/6/2010, 8:09 pm|| |
Oooooo. Post "Myth of the Zen Roshi," Josh. That's one of my favorites!
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/6/2010, 8:25 pm|| |
Richard Baker and the Myth of the ZenRoshi
by Stuart Lachs
Most people think of Zen as being iconoclastic,anti-authoritarian, simple, direct, and unattached. Its raison d'etre is to produce people who possess a fundamental insight into life, people who are not fooled by appearances or ideas. The fact is that almost everything about Zen's presentation, practice, and rituals is aimed at producing people who give up their good sense with the promise of a greater gain in the future. While this is obviously a general statement that demands further qualification, it serves to introduce some of the basic problems to be dealt with here. Please keep it in mind. This is not a new idea nor is it unique to Chan/Zen. David Hume saidin his Of the First principles of Government (1758) that "Nothing appears more surprising to those who consider human affairs with a philosophical eye than the easiness with which the many are governed by the few, and the implicit submission with which men resign their own sentiments and passions to those of their rulers." I believe that the reason for this surrender, in the case of Zen, is clear, structural, and self-perpetuating.
What I mean by the "Zen" institution, for the simple purpose of this conversation, is the organized set of structures that support the standard model of Zen. According to this model, mind-to-mind transmission began with an encounter between the historical Buddha Śakyamuni and Mahakaśyapa, and continued, in an unbroken lineage, through twenty-eight Indian Patriarchs. The last of these was Bodhidharma, who began the patriarchal line in China that led to Hui-neng, traditionally considered to be the sixth and last Chan patriarch. This scheme was later institutionalized through the ritual of Dharma transmission. Mind-to-mind transmission implies that the student has attained an understanding equal to his Zen master/roshi and so on backwards,hence being equal to the original, unmediated wordless understanding that supposedly passed between Śakyamuni and Mahakaśyapa. Supporting tools to make this narrative seem real and unconstructed include the particular methods of meditation and interactions between teacher and student as well as an abundance of validating mythologies most often presented as history in the form of biography, along with accommodating literary and ritual devices. It is this idealized version of Dharma transmission that claims the master is an enlightened being that is the source of the Zen master's extraordinary claim to authority.
This is not to imply that there is no value to be gained in the practice of Zen. It simply means that a power structure has evolved that will perpetuate itself even if it means imputing "attainment" to people who don't really have it. To legitimize the various family lines within Zen,Zen's self-definition necessitates establishing a continuing unbroken lineage of transmitted masters connected to the historical Buddha. The conception of an unbroken lineage based on the idea of mind-to-mind transmission going back to the Buddha superceded a previous idea of authority that was based on texts,i.e., the sutras, which were understood to embody the words of the historical Buddha. You can see how much more potent it is to have a teacher presented as a living Buddha or at least Buddha-like, who, instead of simply interpreting and explaining the words of the Buddha, actually speaks with the same voice as the Buddha. This new Buddha is also alive and homegrown and hence more immediate and real. All of this authority and potency is manifested in the rituals of the Zen master commenting on and judging the words and actions of not only their disciples, but also of anyone in the lineage going all the way back to and including, the historical Buddha. It is a performance meant to confirm and display the current master's significance, authority and attainment.
Michael Downing's book, Shoes Outside the Door: Desire, Devotion, and Excess at San Francisco Zen Center (2001) describes much of the sexual scandal surrounding Richard Baker, as well as financial problems and Baker's generally arrogant behavior. Not only is the book a compelling read; it also, more importantly perhaps, provides raw data for observing Zen mythmaking in action. It allows us a much closer look than we get through, say, looking at the many biographies of past masters from Chan in China during the Tang dynasty(CE 618-907).
Richard Baker is an extremely bright and talented person and a born salesman. Shunryu Suzuki Roshi, shortly before his death in December 1971, gave him Dharma transmission in the Soto sect of Zen, thereby making Baker, for his students and for all future people in his lineage, an authentic link to the Buddha. At that time, Baker also became the official leader of the San Francisco Zen Center (SFZC).
Baker is the sole western heir of Suzuki Roshi, a Japanese Zen teacher who founded the SFZC and its mountain training center, Tassajara established in 1967. Downing interviewed roughly eighty people, most of them Baker's students, approximately eighteen years after Baker was forced to resign. The San Francisco Zen Center "scandal" was not unique in American Zen history. In fact there are few major centers not touched by sexual or other scandals, but the SFZC case suffices for the discussion we will have here.
The idea of the enlightened Zen master authenticated through the ritual of dharma transmission and maintained by an unbroken lineage going back to the historical Buddha is at the heart of the Zen tradition. In this scheme,each teacher can trace his lineage and hence, authenticity, back to the historical Buddha. The implications of this authority in some ways far outstrip that bestowed upon the highest secular authorities, since there is the implication that the Zen master is enlightened, a fully attained being.
One of the most interesting aspects of the Baker case is that the people at the SFZC did not change their fundamental understanding of the process they had gone through for, in some cases, twenty or more years. This is not surprising, being, as it is, a natural result of the customs and environment created by the Zen institution.
The Zen Institution
[Note: This section offers background mostly not covered in Downing's book.]
For some thirty years a significant group of scholars have been investigating the development of the Chan sect in Chinese Buddhism. They have shown us clearly that much of what has been presented by the tradition as "history,"is really a myth created with two purposes. One was to make the state consider Chan the primary sect of Buddhism. The other was to establish Chan's primacy over the indigenous teachings of Confucianism and Taoism in the eyes of the state and the elite of society. The same myth was later used in Japan for similar purposes, with Shintoism being the competing indigenous teaching.
Despite its iconoclastic image, Zen has in actuality been are markably conservative institution throughout its history, almost always tied to and controlled by the state and elite elements of society. There is certainly nothing anti-authoritarian about the notion of unbroken lineage going back to the historical Buddha. Likewise, Dharma transmission was as much about institutional prosperity, prestige, authority, continuity and acceptance and control by imperial authorities as it was about notions of enlightenment andspiritual perfection. The Zen master is a role that stands as a representative of the entire Zen institution. He occupies an authoritative place in East Asian cultures that have already been imbued with a special level of hierarchy since ancient times. It could fairly be said that what is effectively transmitted by Dharma transmission is institutional authority, rather than religious wisdom.However, I do not mean to imply there is no inner spiritual content to the Zen tradition.
Dharma transmission has been awarded and is still awarded for many reasons besides spiritual attainment. In fact, it was often not based on spiritual attainment at all, most especially so in Japanese Soto Zen, which is the sect of Suzuki, Baker and the San Francisco Zen Center. In this sect, Dharma transmission is commonly a father-son transmission ritual culminating in the son's inheritance of the family temple. Spiritual attainment, insight into timeless truth(s) or any other profound changes in one's inner life play virtually no part in the majority of these Dharma transmissions or in the everyday functions of these roshis.
But the Soto sect tries to have it both ways. It allows bureaucratic transmission, but it also uses "historical" biographies of eminent masters presented as desireless beings, the koans, and the many Zen stories and dialogues (mondo) to legitimize and to enhance authority, that make clear that transmission is given because of a deep insight into reality or spiritual attainment. Read any of these texts of Zen, The Book of Serenity,a Soto sect koan collection, being one prominent example, and this will be abundantly clear.
"Hollow" transmissions such as those between father and son are incorporated into the unbroken lineage to the Buddha. (If the reader wants to argue that Dharma transmission in the Rinzai sect or in the modern Sanbokyodan sect so popular in the West matches the ideal of Zen rhetoric,please feel free to email me at my address listed in the Notes.)
Even when Dharma transmission does reflect some level of something we may call spiritual attainment, it is not based on the idealized version proffered by the Zen institution: a mystical meeting of minds between teacher and disciple sharing a timeless truth that unvaryingly matches the minds of all teachers going back in the lineage, through the six Chan Patriarchs in China,and the twenty eight generations of the supposed Indian lineage going back to the historical Buddha, and beyond. This is a mythology of Zen, a pure fiction.The Zen institution requires the master because he is supposedly a living example of the ideal of Zen and, as such, represents all of its legitimacy and authority. A large institution like Zen requires hundreds of such living role players. This necessitates the production of virtual quotas of such highly exalted people, while in the realm of "spiritual attainment" it is rare to produce just one such person. Therefore, in the living world of flesh and blood we have people with some very limited level of attainment occupying a role that is defined as Buddha-like, actualizing perfect freedom and unfathomable compassion beyond the ordinary person's understanding and hence above question. However Zen texts may define the role, Zen masters have not been fully enlightened beings beyond question.
In the 1960's and 70's, San Francisco Zen Center students, like most other Zen students in the U.S.A., thoroughly accepted (among a range of glaring historical inaccuracies) the idealistic Zen rhetoric, including the notion that Dharma transmission is only about spiritual attainment, that all roshis are essentially equal, and that Zen institutions in East Asia are apolitical and divorced from the state. It is interesting to note that these beliefs persisted strongly even into the year 2000, roughly the time of Downing's interviews when there had been thirty-five years of sexual and financial scandals in the Zen community in America. This would have led any impartial observer to question the spiritual implications of Dharma transmission. By this time there had also been an abundance of scholarly writing and empirical evidence exposing much of the mythology surrounding Zen.
So why did none of Baker's students, as expressed in their interviews with Downing, show any awareness that institutional self-definition encouraged their idealization of Baker, which allowed, perhaps even fostered,the occurrence of many of the alleged abuses? No one took the opportunity to stand back and view the entire affair from any sort of sociological,anthropological, psychological or religious-historical perspective. Nor did anyone even think to view the situation through the lens of the Buddhist teachings themselves or even the particular teachings of their beloved founder Suzuki. I think this happened because Zen's teaching to avoid words and explanation was taken too literally and has fostered an unfortunate narrowing of perspective. This is also extremely disempowering which can lead to all sorts of problems, as the SFZC case clearly shows. With one or two exceptions,the only views expressed of Baker's errant behavior among the Center's members was in the context of their personal experience. I assume that Downing would have included a broader view if he had heard it from any of the interviewees.
In the West in general, but particularly in America, we place great importance on each person's individuality and uniqueness and hence on our personal experience. We seem to forget that we live with other humans and that society is a human product that we act upon and that acts upon us and in a sense produces us. Our personal experience is socially constructed in dialogue with society and with ourselves. In the case of Zen, students usually come to the teacher with a set of preconceptions, acquired mostly through reading,about the fully attained Zen master as being virtually beyond their comprehension. The historical Zen masters we have all come to know are always presented in terms of supposedly real people, with names, dates, and locations,and reports of purportedly real conversations and interactions with other monks and sometimes lay people as if there is no doubt at all that we are dealing with historical individuals.
This "history" has added weight because it is presented as biographical fact. Practitioners are given the ultimate encouragement of knowing that real people "attained enlightenment" and therefore so can we. But how real is this history? Most of the narratives of the early heroes of Chan that we have today were composed hundreds of years after the ostensive events, complete with verbatim accounts of the master's interaction with a disciple presented as if a court stenographer had been recording the entire interaction. Interestingly, the later versions of the supposed events often have more detail than the earlier versions, implying that we are dealing with literary creations rather than historical biography. (See Foulk, "Myth,Ritual, and Monastic Practice," listed in the notes for a fuller discussion.) There are also accounts of people receiving transmission from masters who were dead by the time the supposed transmission took place. In short, the biographical approach to history seems to be used because it has intimate real-life immediacy.
Writings featured as biography in Zen are most often an idealized presentation of how a master should perform his role rather than the life of areal person. This is hagiography, which is necessary for Chan's self-legitimating claims of mind-to-mind transmission and unbroken lineage. The past generations are presented in a saintly and exalted manner, which adds to the prestige of the tradition as a whole, but most importantly, to the prestige of the last name on the lineage chart, the living teacher. In the end, both teacher and student fall prey to these fantasies. In this regard Mr. Downing has offered an excellent example in Richard Baker and the SFZC. I am thankful for Michael Downing's work, which is extremely valuable. However, it should be noted, that he let interviewees voice any number of inaccuracies without comment. For example there was the claim that Zen monasteries in China were self- sufficient,which makes it seem that they were not dependent on the state and elite elements of society and were not actively promoting themselves to get this support and patronage. The historical fact is that monasteries actively courted the state and elite elements of society, depended on donations from wealthy patrons and or the state, had tenant farmers work their often vast donated and inherited land holdings, etc. Another error is seen in the statement that Yasutani roshi rescinded the Dharma transmission he gave to Philip Kapleau. In fact, Kapleau never received Dharma transmission in the first place, so there was nothing to rescind. There is a whole lineage built on the idea that Kapleau had transmission. (I don't mean to say that Kapleau is any more or less qualified to teach for receiving transmission or not, and in fact he is one of the few major teachers not involved with sexual or other scandal though one of his disciples did have a major scandal.) Cases like this are important simply because the study of Zen history has shown us the whole lineage tradition is built so heavily on questionable written and word-of-mouth accounts; what is said in the present will surely be repeated long into the future.
Last edited by Watson on 12/7/2010, 12:25 am; edited 1 time in total (Reason for editing : fixing spacing between words)
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/6/2010, 8:27 pm|| |
Part II - The Myth of the Zen Roshi
Trouble At The San Francisco Zen Center
I believe the trouble at the San Francisco Zen Center, and at manyother prominent Zen Centers, across the country to this day, is caused by alack of understanding as to how the ideas of Dharma transmission, unbrokenlineage, and Zen master have been used historically. The meaning of these termsevolved as a means of self-definition for the Zen sect to differentiate itselffrom other Buddhist sects in a way that particularly matched the Chinese socialsystem based on genealogy and to gain legitimization and authenticity from theimperial powers that always maintained tight control over Buddhism. Under theZen approach, the Chan masters are clearly more potent than the monastics ofother Buddhist sects, who merely explicate the Dharma through texts, oftentexts that are further distanced from their authoritative origins by the act oftranslation. This imputation of power and attainment has given one Zen roshiafter another the power to abuse their position while remaining beyondreproach. Under the Zen form of legitimization, each Zen roshi is viewed as asaint. In the last few decades as opposed to the past, we have had a clearpersonal view of the actual people involved, Richard Baker being only one. Ifthe past is any indication these present teachers will be referred to ashonored patriarchs in the future.
For a peek into a period only shortly before our own, we can useBrian Victoria's book Zen At War. Victoria describes how the mostprominent roshis from all sects of Japanese Zen interpreted Zen's teachings tosupport the imperial and militaristic goals of Japan from the early twentiethcentury through the end of World War II and beyond. Before Victoria's book waspublished these people, many who were influential in bringing Zen to the west,were routinely presented as flawless examples of Zen attainment. This has adirect bearing on the Baker story and the way mythology continues to beconstructed even in the present.
Baker wrote an introduction to Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind,an edited collection of Suzuki's talks, in which Baker said (p.17),"During the Second World War he [Suzuki] was the leader of a pacifistgroup in Japan." This is a very interesting piece of "history"which is no doubt destined to be repeated. In fact, David Chadwick, a studentof both Suzuki and Baker, lent some credence to this assertion in his 1999 bookabout Suzuki, Crooked Cucumber. Nevertheless, following extensiveinvestigation, even Chadwick was forced to admit: "Anything Shunryu haddone that could be considered remotely antiwar he had done before the Pacificwar started" (p. 97).
Brian Victoria was so interested in the possibility of a publicpacifist/anti-war Soto monk that he contacted Suzuki's son Hoitsu who told him:"I don't know where all of this antiwar talk comes from, but my father andthe rest of the family supported Japan's war effort just like everyoneelse." (It should also be noted that Victoria is fluent in Japanese whileBaker and Chadwick are not.) Furthermore, Chadwick told Victoria that when he(Chadwick) had once asked Baker himself about the basis for the claim, Bakerreplied that he could not remember! Perhaps tellingly, Baker made this claim atthe height of the Vietnam War, when virtually 100% of Zen followers wereopposed to the war and hence having an anti-war/anti -government roshi in hislineage was good currency. This story appears to be an example of modern daycreation of hagiography that will be repeated in the future. Furthermore thiscreation has to be ongoing. It will not do for future generations if there aregaps in the line of saintly figures.
You have to ask whether Suzuki was aware of the claims made byBaker and, if so, why he permitted them to stand without correction. (It shouldbe noted that Suzuki could read English.)
We see in Downing's book that it is precisely the idealized notionof Dharma transmission that pre-empted anything that Zen Center members saw forthemselves when viewing Baker, their Dharma-transmitted leader, at least priorto the rupture in 1983. Baker and the senior priests dismissed any questioningof Baker's behavior or activities as a lack of insight into enlightenment onthe part of the questioner. Hence, questioning and dissent became a shortcomingof the person expressing such a view. At times, senior disciples needed to reassurenewcomers who questioned Baker's behavior that all was in order.
One student said that when the senior priests were questionedabout some aspects of Baker's behavior, the answer was, "Richard hasTransmission." A senior member relates in Downing's book that Suzukihimself refused to hear criticism of Baker by other members of the Centerbecause, as he said, " To his [Suzuki's] way of thinking, Dick'scommitment was at another level, so the rest of us were not in a position tocriticize him." Because the newcomers' indoctrination into Zen ideologywas incomplete, their unfortunate reliance on common sense prevented them fromviewing Baker's eccentricities as qualities of an enlightened Zen master. Bakerhimself was quick to remind his flock that he was the only American to receiveDharma transmission from Suzuki Roshi. This reminder served an importantpurpose: the Center's members viewed Suzuki's authority as if it were a divinefiat, so that any dissent or criticism was ended.
San Francisco from the 1960's into the 1980's was considered bymany to be the freest city in America, especially when understanding"libre" as freedom from ideological constraints. Zen Center membersdid not think there was any thought control or propaganda necessary to escapewhen it came to Zen. Members had not the slightest inkling that their view ofZen was controlled. They believed their way of living and of practicing Zen wasthe best alternative available in America. People put their hearts into thepractice and the Center, sometimes going as far as asserting that the Centerrepresented the cutting edge of Zen in the America. When one member was aboutto leave (after the Baker scandal), rather than receiving well wishes or a wordof advice from his teacher-who happened to be the new abbot after Baker, he wassmugly told that he would be back in a year.
It is clear from Downing's interviews that Zen Center membersassumed that there was no ideology to be questioned, i.e., the unreliablehistory of Zen, the hagiographic picture of the lineage, along with itsmythology of Dharma transmission, unbroken lineage, and enlightened Zenmasters. A number of Downing's interviewees spoke of receiving the true or pureZen teaching from Suzuki Roshi. It was not surprising, then, that when troublearose at the Center it was mostly assumed that something must be wrong with themembers themselves; that it was because they did not use or handle wellSuzuki's pure teaching. One older student expressed it this way, "In ourhands, and it was in our hands, it [Suzuki's pure teaching] became a bludgeonof power, a source of competition, jealousy, and paranoia. That's what we madeof it." All trouble at the Center was internalized and personalized by itsmembers. Institutional mythology, which created a seamless picture of unbrokenlineage along with pure, desireless perfection and attainment housed in thebody of the master, was not questioned, and hence, remained intact.
Baker manifested his authority by giving his followers twochoices: obey his words without question or be marginalized, which wastantamount to being forced to leave. The latter choice was too painful for manyfor any number of reasons, including: 1) many believed that the Center was thebest place to practice Zen and so leaving meant giving up what made life seemmost meaningful, 2) their self-identities as Zen practitioners were connectedto the Center, 3) loyalty to Suzuki Roshi, 4) leaving close friendshipsestablished through communal living and especially through practicingmeditation together, 5) loving the lifestyle and 6) fear of losing one'sposition in the hierarchy and the possibility for future higher positionsculminating in being Dharma transmitted oneself. Therefore, in the need toremain at the Center, members had a powerful incentive to fully buy into Zen'smythology. This was especially true of people wanting to climb Zen Center'sladder to positions of authority, power, and prestige, which was totallydependent on Baker's sanction. There is a saying, "It is difficult toconvince a man of something if his paycheck depends on his not understandingit." Obedience, subservience, and discipline were well rewarded at a largeinstitution like the San Francisco Zen Center, as Downing's book amply shows.
Baker and Suzuki themselves were rewarded by this system. Besidesthe personal power of his position Baker lived with paid travel, an abundanceof high-priced worldly goods, a number of well-appointed residences, a steadysupply of household help and assistants, sex with his students and access tohigh profile friends. Suzuki's prestige grew enormously. He was leader of thelargest Zen center in the United States and founder of Tassajara, the first Zenmonastery in America; he sent a number of American disciples to study in Japanand was surrounded, as was Baker, by hundreds of devoted, unquestioning, oftenyoung and energetic followers. But in truth, neither Suzuki nor Baker fit thesaintly mold.
Suzuki Roshi, the founder of the San Francisco Zen Center and itsleader until his death in 1971, was an impressive person, sincerely loved bymost all the Center's members. Baker's introduction to Suzuki's edited words inthe well known book, Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind gives a description of Suzukias the ideal of a fully realized Zen master.
What the teacher really offers the student is literally livingproof that all this talk and the seemingly impossible goals can be realized inthis lifetime. The deeper you go into practice, the deeper you find yourteacher's mind is, until you finally realize that your mind and his mind areBuddha's mind.
Baker then quotes Trudy Dixon, the editor of the book, thusendorsing her words:
"A roshi is a person who has actualized that perfect freedom which is thepotentiality for all human beings. He exists freely in the fullness of hiswhole being. The flow of his consciousness is not the fixed repetitive patternsof our usual self-centered consciousness, but rather arises spontaneously andnaturally from the actual circumstances of the present. The results of this interms of the quality of his life are extraordinary-buoyancy, vigor,straightforwardness, simplicity, humility, security, joyousness, uncannyperspicacity and unfathomable compassion. His whole being testifies to what itmeans to live in the reality of the present. Without anything said or done,just the impact of meeting a personality so developed can be enough to changeanother's whole way of life. But in the end it is not the extraordinariness ofthe teacher that perplexes, intrigues, and deepens the student, it is theteacher's utter ordinariness."
Suzuki indeed had ordinary and even tragic circumstances in hislife, as is shown in Downing's book, who references David Chadwick's book, CrookedCucumber, for the following details. He was married three times. His firstwife contracted tuberculosis and returned to her parents shortly aftermarriage; his second wife was brutally murdered by an erratic, antisocial monkwhom Suzuki had retained as a temple assistant, despite contrary advise fromneighbors and colleagues. His youngest daughter, Omi, committed suicide afterspending nine years in a mental hospital; he gave Dharma transmission to hisson Hoitsu, who did not study with him or even get on with him, but whoinherited his temple (this is standard Soto Zen procedure); he gave, as a favorto a friend, Dharma transmission to someone he did not know or have any contactwith. He also ran a temple virtually under the control of Japan's repressive fascistera government. This is the sort of detail, which might be useful to bothpresent and future students, but it is absolutely missing from all of thecompletely standard biographies of Zen masters through the ages.
A theme repeated in Downing's interviews is Suzuki's seeminglyquirky idea of reforming Soto Zen in Japan by having his American students gothere as living examples of reform. His American students accept this themeunquestioningly. Yet, after Tatsugami Roshi, one of the important training teachersfrom Eiheji, one of the two main Soto Zen training monasteries in Japan,conducted only one training period at Tassajara, Zen Center's monastery inCalifornia, Suzuki "arranged" for him not to return because hisAmerican students were so dissatisfied.
In addition, the few American students of his who went to Japancame back disappointed, which upset Suzuki because he thought these studentswould then think less ofBuddhism. There appeared to be a vast cultural dividebetween the Zen Center students of Suzuki and Japanese Zen monks that showeditself both in America and in Japan. Suzuki surely knew that his fellowJapanese Soto roshi and priests would hardly accept Americans as examples forthe reform of Zen, especially in Japan. So it is natural to ask, why didSuzuki's and Baker's students mention this so often? And what was Suzuki'sintention here? In addition, if there were something to reform in Japanese SotoZen, the automatic Dharma transmission for virtually all priests, often betweenfather and son, would be high on the list.
Why did Baker perpetuate such a simplistic view of Suzuki? I don'tknow for certain but Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind was published in 1970,only one year before Baker himself received Dharma transmission and the title,Zen master. Downing reveals that by 1969 Suzuki had made it known to Baker andothers at the Center that Baker was to be his Dharma heir. Baker's use ofDixon's words begins the description of Suzuki Roshi, with the strange phrasing"a roshi is..." This substitutes what is supposed to be a descriptionof their close and beloved teacher Suzuki Roshi, a real person, with anabstraction, "a roshi." Yet Baker certainly knew that, at best, fewif any roshi are so fully realized. More tellingly, Baker, inserted the veryidealized description of qualities and characteristics supposedly of SuzukiRoshi, generalized to all roshi, knowing it would inevitably, indeed shortly,be applied to himself.
Even though the bureaucratic "transmissions" in the Sotochurch have nothing to do with spiritual insight, the Soto institution doesnothing to dissuade people thinking that there is a mind-to-mind connectionbetween its "roshis" and the historical Buddha. In fact, Suzuki'slineage, now and as long as the line survives, comes through his son Hoitsu andBaker and that unknown person. In particular, Suzuki's San Francisco Zen Centerlineage continues through his bureaucratic "transmission" to his sonHoitsu. In time Suzuki, Baker, Hoitsu, and Unknown will blend into that "history"of immaculate patriarchs. This is not ancient history. Before our eyes we havea living person becoming a faceless, a-historical person. It is a sanitizeddescription wherein any one roshi is replaceable by any other roshi, which isreally no person at all. There is nothing in the description that allowssomeone in the future to distinguish Suzuki, Hoitsu or any of their heirs fromany of thousands of hallowed ancestors.
This formulaic collection of qualities of a Zen master, is notneutral. The experience of legitimacy, realness and of being believable hidesthe underlying power relations. This "non-person" i.e., a roshi, is ageneric person, who supposedly is a real member of the Buddha's family, theholder of absolute truth, whose function besides producing an heir to keep thelineage alive, is to wield authority: to be listened to, obeyed and bowed downto. And perhaps most importantly, his authority will be understood with ataken-for-granted quality of being natural. Institutional power, authority, hierarchyand order are, hence, accomplished through self-censorship by the members, amore effective method for controlling dissent and questioning than coercion bythe leaders.
It was not mentioned in the interviews that Suzuki himself mightbe partially responsible for the ensuing trouble. It is possible that Suzukihad a paternal attachment to Baker. Suzuki enabled the ensuing trouble bytransmitting only to Baker to the exclusion of other westerners, by failing tounderstand Baker's character, by failing to mitigate his authority in any way,and by failing to explain clearly the historical and common way that Dharmatransmission was and is used in Soto Zen. In not clearly explaining themeaning, to his disciples at the SFZC, of his transmission to Baker, whilestressing that it was "real;" Suzuki chose to perpetuate a fictionand to dishonor the trust they had given him. His focus on having the Centergrow quickly and on reforming Soto Zen in Japan may also have contributed tothe problems.
Understandably, Suzuki may not have been able to read across theJapanese-American cultural divide and therefore not see the character flaws ofBaker that were obvious to some of his unenlightened American students.Finally, as Suzuki apologized to Baker for what he was going to do to him,i.e., give him and only him Dharma transmission, Suzuki knew that all was notright or ripe or both with Baker. Yet for reasons known only to him heproceeded to make Baker his only American Dharma heir. It is hard to avoid theconclusion that Suzuki, in so many ways an admirable person, had a large handin the problems that followed his death.
Why should we think that Suzuki chose Baker as his only AmericanDharma heir based on his level of "spiritual attainment?" After all,the only two previous Dharma transmissions Suzuki gave, to his son Hoitsu andto Unknown, were not based on attainment at all. Remember the senior studentwho quoted Suzuki as saying, " Dick's commitment is at another level, sothe rest of us simply were not in a position to criticize him."Interestingly, Suzuki did not mention "spiritual attainment," butrather commitment. This is not surprising if we remember that in Soto Zen"spiritual attainment" is rarely a criterion for Dharma transmission.We may however, ask, "What commitment was Suzuki referring to?" WasBaker's commitment to Zen practice much greater than a number of other ofSuzuki's close, very committed senior disciples? Or was it that Baker, inaddition to his commitment to Zen, was more committed to institutional growththan the others, and importantly, was the only disciple who possessed thenecessary skills and qualities to achieve the growth; the growth that Suzukidesired? All of this is in thecontext of Suzuki, the Zen master, being a man whose quality of life isdescribed as: "buoyancy, vigor, straightforwardness, simplicity, humility,security, joyousness, uncanny perspicacity and unfathomable compassion."This is a person without a defect, showing no self-interest, desire, interiorcalculation, or a shortcoming. Yet we all know that no human is like this.Suzuki or any other Zen master only looks this way if we avoid looking at theirreal life. But that is the way that Suzuki or Baker or any roshi is presented.And that very presentation is the freight of the Zen machine. It means,"Don't ask. Trust me." It is an institutional dream that needs to beanalyzed using its own description.
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/6/2010, 8:28 pm|| |
Part III - Sorry for the odd formatting -- I have not figured out how to make this more presentable. You can find these essays on line and print them out to make them easier to read:
Richard Baker is a man who through the ritual of Dharma transmission has been installed in the Soto Zen sect's "authentic"unbroken lineage going back to the historical Buddha. In the future, his name will be used as proof of authenticity for someone else that is also claiming this authentic connection to the Buddha. This is one reason why we are looking at his case, to see how the system works, how it has always worked.
When it came to Baker's transmission from Suzuki, virtually all the students interviewed by Downing assumed that it was a "real"transmission. It was considered "real" because it came from the saintly Suzuki and Suzuki made a point of saying it was "real." By saying this, he was emphasizing his guarantee that the essence of the Zen lineage resides in Baker. One student stated it as, "The one thing that seemed unquestionable was Richard's Transmission." It did not matter that Baker did not appear to offer his students the "living proof that... the seemingly impossible goal [of Zen] can be realized in this lifetime" as Baker himself described the function of the teacher. In fact, a number of older students who had known Baker for years left the Zen Center when he was installed as both abbot and roshi of SFZC.
If someone attempted to question some aspect of Baker's behavior, both Baker and senior disciples reminded them that Baker was the only American Dharma heir of Suzuki. The senior disciples consistently stressed that Baker's transmission was real; it made him into a "pure vessel of the Dharma," a man of wisdom, far beyond the questioner's obviously limited understanding and suspicion. It was almost like a magic theater, where if someone received Dharma transmission, and hence, was a supposed enlightened being, he would become a different person who could do anything he pleased. One justification sometimes heard, glib to my ear, is that enlightenment is not about morality. Not surprisingly, virtually 100% of the time these breaches of morality serve the pleasure and interests of the supposed enlightened one. It seems that Zen's emphasis on wisdom, while giving compassion only lip service,is really about power. It is clear that the senior members of Zen Centersurrounding Baker were well-indoctrinated vessels of Zen ideology.
As long as it was understood that Baker was the only Dharma heir of Suzuki, it was exceedingly difficult for any one to question Baker's behavior and style. Hence, a number of questions were never openly raised: Was he acting in an arrogant fashion? Had he misused confidences given to him indokusan (a private meeting between teacher and student pertaining to the student's practice, an extremely important element in Zen training) for self-serving reasons? (Downing's interviews showed that he did.) Was he hypocritical for reprimanding his students for flirting while he carried on numerous affairs with his female students, including one that ruptured his best friend's marriage? Was his lifestyle less than exemplary? Was he acting primarily with his own self-interest in mind? What was or was not implied in Baker's transmission from Suzuki? Was he perhaps not a fully realized person?These and any number of other questions, complaints, hurts or criticisms harbored by his disciples, were not raised. In America, it is common in Zen and other communities led by a charismatic teacher to view events that could generate questions such as these not as real life-problems, but as"skillful means" employed to convey the essence of "the teaching." I have seen such a view expressed in four other major Zen communities as well as in a Tibetan community.
It is fashionable among practitioners in the West to consider critical thought as "un-Zen." With this view in place, the entire spectrum of permissible thought is now caught and limited within Zen's mythological presentation, which was a completed creation by the eleventh century in China. Analysis or active use of "the discriminating mind"is frowned upon, or worse, it is viewed as a sign of having too large an ego.Any genuine interpretation or questioning of the meaning of Dharma transmission, lineage, the Zen roshi, their place in the institution, their accountability, and so on is made to seem absurd. The idea and ritual of Dharma transmission rather than the meaning or content of that transmission, becomes the prominent and meaningful fact. Zen elevates its leaders to super-human status, then emphasizes that we should be obedient and subservient to a powerful and supremely accomplished authority figure, precisely because he is powerful and supremely accomplished. Is it any wonder that the inevitable abuses that we have seen for the last thirty years should follow?
Zen Center Members
San Francisco Zen Center practitioners did make a serious commitment to their practice. A theme repeated throughout Downing's book is Suzuki's injunction to "just sit," which means to do seated meditation. It is mentioned often enough that Downing, interestingly calculates the hours that individual senior members had meditated. By the seventies he calculates 10-15,000 hours and that by 1987 the most senior practitioners had each meditated some 20- 25,000 hours on the cushion. With this investment it is understandable that one might not want to question too closely the teacher's behavior. It should be kept in mind that the senior members, by 1982, were often over forty years old and had been practicing at Zen Center for fifteen or more years. Besides Suzuki's chosen heir Baker's questionable behavior, Downing reveals many of the senior people scrambling for positions of authority, power,money and perks.
Some of the most senior members appeared afraid to raise difficult questions with Baker perhaps for fear of losing their own privileged positions.One student expressed it as, "some of the senior priests were in it for a payoff-Transmission," another stated it as, "They were ambitious, and only Richard could give it [transmission] to them, because he was the only one who had it." One of the oldest and perhaps most outspoken members who was eventually forced out by Baker stated, "this was a system that was about staying asleep because it was too risky to wake up." Newcomers naturally looked to senior priests as guides or friends, but in doing so, they may have been mistaken. It was like a "game" of Zen where if any one speaks out or asks the wrong question, the "game" is ruined or finished, at least for that person. Senior members also appeared blind to the voices of others and closed to criticism.
There was a widespread conceit in their thinking that they were the center or "cutting edge" of Zen in America, not cognizant that many other Zen groups were forming city/country Centers and also experimenting with the ideas of setting up monasteries, group practice, communal living and forming a sangha. Downing shows that even in their every day negotiations for used restaurant equipment when they were opening Green's Restaurant, they held a disproportionate sense of their own importance in the wider community. The senior members blindly and unquestioningly bought into Zen's mythology and Baker's transmission being above and beyond question. As is common among members of new religions, they viewed themselves as special. One has to ask if something is not missing in Suzuki's simple prescription to "just sit?" Unfortunately, this issue is not raised or considered by any of the Zen Center members interviewed in the book. It is noted that after 1983 the study of sutras, Zen texts and history was instituted. But, given that no one interviewed in the book expressed any view outside of the standard Zen model,one may ask, was the Zen history taught at the Zen Center just more of Zen legend?
I too was a member of a Zen center where we also felt that our group and style of practice were in some ways unique. The issue here is not how individual students behave foolishly or even in a self-serving way, it is the admonition to "just sit" - even for twenty thousand hours - is no guarantee against foolishness or delusion. The admonition to "just sit," to"just practice," is one more way in which trust in one's discriminating faculties or any other Buddhist practice are cut off. In reality it means, "don't question, don't look!"
It is important to remember now that the interviews Downing conducted in 1998-2000 were long after the events at the SFZC took place.People interviewed had the luxury of hindsight. Despite this, few people interviewed seemed to be aware that by continually repeating the transmission story without reflection and without making the effort to understand what they were part of, they were in fact becoming an integral component in the creation of a new myth-which was then used by people like Richard Baker. San Francisco Zen Center students and other students throughout history were also one cause of the problem.
The student who enters the "practice" having read a myth will expect to find the myth, and will think they have found the myth. What they really found is another story of flawed human behavior.
Baker Sums It Up
In 1989, some six years after Baker was forced to leave, he threatened to take back Zen Center by going to court. Baker claimed the Center was "denying 2,500 years of how Buddhism was developed and continued..." He made a number of other historically inaccurate claims,and finally dropped the suit saying that he was pressured to institute the threat by a lawyer student of his: "There was a lawyer who kept bugging me." Baker also claimed that he was trying "to protect Suzuki Roshi's legacy and lineage." Downing quotes a prominent older student who expressed it differently, "Dick tried to take over Zen Center again."The suit cost the SFZC $35,000 to $40,000 in legal fees at a time when it was under financial pressure.
While leader of the SFZC, Baker's purchase of a new white BMW became a focal point for much of the anger and resentments that Zen Center members felt towards him. At the time of the purchase, Baker claimed he needed so expensive a car because of the amount of driving he did. "It was a fantastic drive," he said, it was safe to drive and that he liked to keep his legs in zazen posture. Baker adds he was "on a roll," was in love with his latest girlfriend and that his peers, est founder Werner Erhard and the well known Tibetan teacher Trungpa, had chauffeurs and large Mercedes, so"I thought I should buy a car." During his interview with Downing, Baker Roshi explains that having a "nice car," girlfriends and going out to dinner were implementations of Suzuki Roshi's commitment to lay practice.
"Not what the holy man is but what he signifies in the eyesof those who are not holy gives him his world- historical value. It is because one was wrong about him, because one misinterpreted the states of his soul and drew as sharp a line as is possible between oneself and him, as if he were something utterly incomparable and strangely superhuman-that he gained that extraordinary power with which he could dominate the imagination of whole peoples and ages."
- Friedrich Nietzsche, Human, All Too Human (1878)
. . .
I welcome any comments from the reader. Please send to email@example.com.
For a very fine book review of Shoes Outside the Door, see Crews,Frederick, "Zen & the Art of Success," The New York Review ofBooks, 28 Mar. 2002: 8-11.
I have been involved with Zen in America for over thirty years during which time there have been many upheavals and problems, some similar to the Baker case described in Michael Downing's, Shoes Outside The Door,others more subtle and less obvious in nature. A good part of the goal of Buddhism is to reduce illusion and suffering. One component of Buddhism is to recognize cause and effect. Yet, I have found that within the Zen community there is little self-examination about Zen as an institution and its self-definitions and what the effects of these are in the world of flesh and blood people. In Downing's book we see that much illusion, suffering and pain has been part of Zen in San Francisco, a situation that, unfortunately, has been repeated in most every other part of America over a thirty-five yearperiod. Others have told me that my view, informed by historical scholarship(as opposed to Zen's own fictional history), sociology, political and social analysis as well as long personal involvement, has been helpful in clarifying some of the illusion and in reducing some of the pain. I hope this is the case with this paper. Peter L. Berger, the well- known American sociologist writes,"Unlike puppets, we have the possibility of stopping in our movements,looking up and perceiving the machinery by which we have been moved. In this act lies the first step towards freedom."
This article is not saying that there is no place for a Zen teacher. As in any field, there is a need for experienced and knowledgeable teachers. However, crediting a teacher, by definition of their role or title,with exalted qualities he does not really possess, is begging for trouble. AZen teacher can certainly assist his students in their practice, can encourage the students to be diligent, guide their meditation practice in both public and private meetings, offer aid in difficult times, talk about Zen texts to enrich the student's sense of the tradition and explicate Buddhist and Zen ideas.Importantly, teachers can inspire followers by setting a living example through interactions with their students and others and, with the conduct of their own life, demonstrate that Zen practice can make one a wiser and more compassionate human being. In addition, as there are other practitioners around the teacher it is helpful to be part of a community of fellow practitioners.
Baker's case took place within a certain context, and to understand what happened it is helpful to look not only at Baker, but also at Zen institutional self-definitions and the patterns of social life they have engendered in the United States. Until one begins to view religious institutions as institutions that function in a particular context, subject tothe same problematic power relationships as secular institutions, problems suchas those that arose at the San Francisco Zen Center and Buddhist organizations across the West will be almost inevitable. The current crisis in the Catholic Church proves the need for such an institutional analysis. Public opinion shows that while parishioners are, of course, disturbed by priests' abuse of children and young teens, they are more upset by the institutional cover up and denial of that behavior. The Church hierarchy has displayed a consistent concern for protecting and maintaining the eminence of the abusive priests and the holiness of the institution of the Catholic Church, rather than concern for the children and teenagers trusted to their care.
My view of Zen as an institution, some of its problems, and how it operates is most completely expressed in my paper, "Means ofAuthorization: Establishing Hierarchy in Zen Buddhism in America",delivered as part of a panel on Chan at the American Academy of Religion Conference in Boston in 1999. It is available elsewhere on the internet - atthe AAR (where you can also access the other papers from the panel on Ch'an ) or at Darkzen (one can also find other essays on Zen at this site). This paper can also serve the non-scholar as an overview or introduction to modern Zen scholarship and introduce a critical view of the important Zen ideas of master, Dharma transmission, and unbroken lineage.
Not only the work of Zen writers, but political analysts, social critics, sociologists, and my involvement with the practice have informed my thinking about the state of contemporary Zen in the West. I have found the work of the following social analysts to be especially illuminating: Peter L.Berger, Pierre Bourdieu, Noam Chomsky, Edward Herman, David C. Korten, Thomas Lukach, Howard Zinn and Angela Zito.
In particular, Berger, Peter,L. The Sacred Canopy: Elements of a Sociological Theory of Religion, Doubleday, 1967, pp. 3-101 applies the social construction of reality theory to religion. Berger begins, "Every human society is an enterprise of world-building. Religion occupies a distinctive place in this enterprise." Ironically, what follows is in many ways a religious text. I highly recommend this book, especially the first 101pages.
I am also thankful to Mark Baldwin, Sandra Eisenstein, Simeon Gallu, GraceLuddy, Kevin Matthews, Bruce Rickenbacher and Marlene Swartz for many hours of discussion, helpful suggestions, and editorial assistance.
The Zen Institution
There is a wealth of contemporary exciting Zen scholarship available inEnglish. I am greatly indebted to the works of the following scholars, among others, whose critical insights into Zen/Buddhism have strongly influenced my views: Robert Buswell, Alan Cole, Bernard Faure, T. Griffith Foulk, Robert M.Gimello, Peter N. Gregory, John Kieschnick, John R. McRae, A. Charles Muller,Mario Poceski, Robert H. Sharf, Morten Schlutter, Gregory Schopen, BrianVictoria, Albert Welter and Dale Wright. Examining the work of any of the above-mentioned scholars will greatly reward the interested reader who would like to explore contemporary Zen/Buddhist scholarship.
A good place to begin to examine the scholarly view of early Chan history and development is Foulk, T. Griffith, Myth, Ritual, and Monastic Practice in SungCh'an Buddhism in, Religion and Society in T'ang and Sung China, Ed byPatricia Buckley Ebrey and Peter N. Gregory, University of Hawaii Press, 1993,pp 147-205.
To see how the most prominent Japanese Zen roshi as well as some of the roshi associated with bringing Zen to America, in spite of the rhetoric of the standard model of Zen, functioned in Japan from roughly 1911 through WWII, see Victoria, Brian, Zen At War, Weatherhill, 1997. Also see his Zen War Stories to be published December 2002. Unfortunately, the Western Zen community has not explored the many important questions implied by Zen At War.There was an article and follow up piece by Brian Victoria discussing anti-Semitic remarks made by Yasutani roshi in Tricycle magazine (Fall and Winter 1999). An interesting debate between Victoria and members of theDeshimaru group (A.Z.I.) defending Deshimaru's teacher Sawaki roshi's wartime involvement dating from 1905 through WWII is available on the internet here. This group is by far the largest Zen groupin France and is active in the U.S.A. as well as in other parts of Europe.
For a many sided view of the Zen koan see, The Koan, Ed. by Steven Heineand Dale S. Wright, Oxford University Press, 2000. A special note is given to the papers of Heine, Wright, Foulk, McRae, Welter, Schlutter, Michel Mohr and Ishii Shudo.
For a most interesting examination of early Chan lineage and truth claims read from a critical textual analysis rather than reading them "for information about Truth and Practice" or about "historical claims to own truth",see Cole, Alan, "It's All in the Framing", a paper given at U.C.Berkeley, March 17th, 2002. Cole, who teaches at Lewis and Clark College, also has two very provocative books soon to be published, one on the Mahayana sutras and the other on early Chan texts and the "birth" of Chinese Buddhas.
That Kapleau never received Dharma transmission was exposed in a public letter from Yamada roshi dated,1/16/86. Koun Yamada was Yasutani roshi's Dharma heir.He became the leader of the Sanbokyodan school of Zen started by Yasutani. Also see the public letter from Mr. Kapleau toYamada, dated 2/17/86. I have copies of these letters. If some one would like copies, please email me.
For an outstanding article on Sanbokyodan Zen, a Zen sect important in the Westsee, Sharf, Robert, "Sanbokyodan, Zen and the Way of New Religions", Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, Fall 1995, Vol. 22, no.3-4. Yamada gave Dharma transmission to Robert Aitkin, though Aitkin and his Diamond Sanghalater separated from the Sanbokyodan organization after Yamada' Roshi, from giving Dharma transmission, while Japanese of equal standing in the organization were permitted this privilege (p.451).
Trouble At the San Francisco Zen Center
For an important look at Buddhist biography and hagiography though notes pecially Chan, the reader may look at Kieschnick, John, The Eminent Monk,University of Hawaii Press, 1997. In some of these biographies, people laterclassified as Chan monks were listed in other categories, such as Master YantouHuo as an ascetic and Master Xingzhi as a benefactor. In one well-known collection, the famous Grand Master Yunmen is not recorded at all.Institutional and personal motives played an important part in the composing of Buddhist biographical collections; this was especially so in earl Chan lineage texts.
For a look at how religious fantasies may cause trouble,especially with leaders, see "Religion and Alienation" in Berger,Peter L., The Sacred Canopy, pp, 81-101. From the perspective of power and control, the political and the religious spheres overlap. For a view fromthe political perspective that has application in the religious arena seeEdwards, David, "A Chest of Tools for Intellectual Self-Defense" in Burning All Illusions, South End Press, pp. 177-224.
For Suzuki Roshi's edited words see the well-known Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind, Weatherhill, 1970. Also see, Brown, Edward Espe, Not Always So: Practicing the True Spirit of Zen, Harper Collins, 2002, Branching Streams Flow in the Darkness: Zen Talks on the Sandokai, Ed. Mel Weitsman and Michael Wenger, University of California Press,1999 and for a biography of Suzuki'slife see, Chadwick, David, Crooked Cucumber: The Life and Zen Teaching of Shunyru Suzuki, Broadway Books, 1999.
For more on the Soto Zen institution in Japan see Foulk, T.Griffith, "The Zen Institute in Modern Japan", pp.157-177, Zen,Tradition and Transition, Kenneth Kraft ed., NY, Grove Press, 1988. For a history of early Soto Zen as well as how the Soto sect has understood Dharma transmission since roughly 1700, see Bodiford, William M., Soto Zen in Medieval Japan, University of Hawaii Press, 1993, p. 215. "Zen Dharma transmission between master and disciple could occur whether or not the disciple had realized enlightenment, just so long as the ritual of personal initiation had been performed."
For an analysis of the idealized, one-dimensional style of describing a roshi, the one of Suzuki in Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind being just one contemporary example, see "Simpleness" in Alan Cole's previously mentioned paper, "It's All in the Framing", p. 6.
Also see his forthcoming book on early Chan texts for a unique dissection of early lineage claims and their supporting texts . For an analysis of the inherent power relations in the one-dimensional description of a roshi and how it is taken for being natural, see "Symbolic Violence and Social Reproduction"and "Uses of Language" in, Jenkins, Richard, Pierre Bourdieu ,Routledge, 1992, pp.103-110 and pp.152-162 respectively. Also see, The Sociology of Georg Simmel, trans. and ed. By Kurt Wolff, Free Press Paperback, 1950 for a discussion of authority, prestige, subordination, and sociability.
Suzuki's prescription to "just sit" as a kind of medicine to answer all questions and problems apparently did not apply to his Dharma transmitted son Hoitsu. While in Japan looking to set up a practice place for Zen Center members, Baker wrote, "we should make clear to him [Hoitsu] that he is not expected at all to participate in the practice, least of all as head... He does not sit zazen and only chants when he has a service to do for someone." Downing adds, "Suzuki reminded Richard [Baker] that Hoitsu had a family and two children. Did it not occur to him that Richard had a family, too, as did many of the priests of Zen Center?" Shoes Outside The Door, p.135. It is interesting to keep in mind that Suzuki's lineage is alive today at the San Francisco Zen Center because of transmissions through Hoitsu.
It was also mentioned that Suzuki believed that Dharma transmission must be "real", implying that there is "not real" Dharma transmission. Though these themes are mentioned a number of times by students, it seems curious that in Downing's interviews, no one ever questioned what this meant, no one mentioned what Suzuki meant, why Baker's transmission was supposedly real or if Suzuki or Baker ever explained the difference between "real" and unreal transmissions.
Soto temples in Japan often are a family business, handed down from father to son, as Suzuki himself had done with his son Hoitsu.Importantly, the head of every Soto temple must have Dharma transmission.Hence, roughly 95% of all Soto priests in Japan have Dharma transmission, most receiving it after spending at most three years in a monastery, some with as little as six months. Foulk, T. Griffith, "The Zen Institute in Modern Japan", pp. 157-177.
In the latter part of the book, Downing points out that the San Francisco Zen Center has beaucratized Dharma transmission so that in order toreceive Dharma transmission a person must spend ten or twelve years goingthrough the system. This is very similar to the Japanese Soto Zen, with minorvariances for social and cultural differences. Ironically, one may ask, is thatwhat Suzuki hoped to reform? If this was the case, it would seem that he failedthis task in America.
The idea that Zen's emphasis on wisdom while only giving lip service tocompassion in reality is then about power is an idea that I have just begun toexamine. Having wisdom, in the Zen view, is based on Dharma transmission, whichimplies that the person is an enlightened being. More commonly it is bestowedor given by a teacher to some one with limited attainment in order to keep hislineage alive. However, this supposed wisdom is beyond words, is not understoodby the unenlightened who are then not qualified to judge or evaluate it,whether expressed in the words or in the behavior of the wise one. The supposedenlightened Master gets the last word in judging not only the student'sbehavior and verbal responses, but also the whole of the past enlightened lineageincluding the historical Buddha by commenting on and judging any and all of thepast Masters in the old cases (koan) and in their recorded sayings.
Michel Foucault in "The Means of Correct Training" in Disciplineand Punish, trans. Alan Sherman, Vintage Books, 1995 (reprint edition),1995, pp. 170-195 discusses a number of aspects of the penal system, itsdisciplinary power and the simple instruments from which it derives its power:hierarchical observation, normalizing judgment, and their combination-theexamination. He writes, " The perfect disciplinary apparatus would make itpossible for a single gaze to see everything constantly." The Zenunderstanding of wisdom imputes Foucault's "single gaze to see everythingconstantly" to the Master. It is common talk around Zen Centers to hearthat the Master can tell your state of mind just in hearing your footsteps ingoing to sanzen/dokusan, in simply seeing you in any activity, seeing you witha single glance, or in the most idealized version, "he just knows from adistance!"
Zen Center Members
What passes for "knowledge" in society is built on the foundation oflanguage. Zen Center members accepted and internalized most all of Zen's selfdefinitions, history and social forms. Zen's highly ritualized activities addeda visceral instantiation to the cognitive edifice. Members along with Bakerliterally built their world based on the language and view of Zen accompaniedby ritualized behavior that added to the sense of being embedded in and beingan active participant of that sacred world. One member quoted Baker as saying,"I always act from pure motives; I never worry about the world." ShoesOutside The Door, p. 237. This is the consistent view of the masterpresented by Zen, the pure, simple, desireless and self-contained roshi, andwas accepted unquestioningly by Zen Center members. At the same time, thissupposed desireless image of the roshi is meant to invoke desire in us for him.See Alan Cole, "It's All in the Framing."
Under Baker's leadership, it appears that the Center functioned asa dysfunctional family, denying that anything was wrong or problematic. Asnoted in the paper, senior members consistently reassured newer members thatall was well when they raised questions about Baker's activities.Interestingly, one of the oldest members of Zen Center, a psychologist, did an"informal poll" of people who had been at Zen Center for more thaneight years. "Something above ninety percent of us had come from alcoholicfamilies or families that were dysfunctional with the same patterns." ShoesOutside The Door, p. 289.
Baker Sums It Up
For an earlier view of the immediate events surrounding Baker, see Butler,Katy, "Events Are The Teachers", The CoEvolution Quarterly,winter 1983, pp. 112-123.
Baker claimed that the Center, in evicting him, was "denying2,500 years of how Buddhism was developed and continued..." However,Baker's sleight of hand replaces Buddhism's 2,500-year tradition with Zen'sfictional account of unbroken lineage going back to the Buddha. Zen is aChinese invention roughly beginning in the seventh or eighth century of thisera.
Some Zen followers believe that Zen is only concerned withenlightenment and is not concerned with personal behavior or with ordinarymorality. However, for an in depth review of early Chan monastic codes and howearly Chan viewed and supposedly treated errant behavior by monks see Foulk, T.Griffith, "The "Ch'an School" and Its Place In the BuddhistMonastic Tradition," Diss. University of Michigan, 1987. This dissertationalso asks whether the Chan sect existed at all as a separate and distinct sectin the Tang dynasty, the supposed "golden age of Chan"). Foulk doubtsthat the Chan sect existed as a separate sect with its own monastic institutionsduring the Tang dynasty. "To sum up the situation, we have no sources atall from the T'ang which mentions or describe explicitly "Chan"institutions," p. 267.
Zen ascribes to Pai-chang (died 814) its earliest monastic codethat supposedly set Chan apart as a separate sect in the Tang dynasty. However,there is no surviving text of Pai-chang's Rules. One of the earliest textsextant is "Regulations of the Chan Approach" (Ch'an men Kuei-shih,which cannot be dated earlier than 988) that some scholars think was the prefaceto Pai-chang's Rules. Foulk disagrees with this view. Foulk gives translationsof two versions of the text, side by side and analyses their internal structureand contents. pp. 347-379. "It is, basically, a description of a number ofmonastic procedures implicitly attributed to Pai-chang, set in aquasi-historical context, and presented with the authors own explanation andlaudatory remarks."
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/6/2010, 11:37 pm|| |
|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/7/2010, 12:44 am|| |
What's with the tiny print? Love to lurk but please, I can't see this!
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/7/2010, 12:58 am|| |
A tip on font size. When cutting and pasting into the text box for your reply, look for an icon with two capital "A" letters. Click on that, which should give you a choice of font sizes to select for your post. Medium or large should do the trick. Should you have any questions please contact me or Lise.
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/7/2010, 1:35 am|| |
Stuart Lachs was interviewed on the podcast BUDDHIST GEEKS. If you don't know this podcast, recommend you check them out. The podcasts are free -- and you can subscribe to them via ITunes or i think directly. All kinds of interesting discussions on Buddhist practice mostly, but also history, controversies, culture, etc.
I download them and listen to them while I am on the treadmill at the gym.
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/7/2010, 2:02 am|| |
Coming Down from the Zen Clouds: A Critique of the Current State of American Zen
by Stuart Lachs
| Zen Buddhism became widely known in America through D. T. Suzuki's writings, which promoted a non-traditional, modernist interpretation of Zen. Suzuki was a Japanese writer and intellectual who had experienced Zen training as a layman, and who, writing in the nationalistic intellectual climate of early twentieth-century Japan, emphasized a Zen freed from its Mahayana Buddhist context, centered on a special kind of "pure" experience and without the traditional Buddhist concern for morality 1. This view, represented today by Abe Masao and the "Kyoto School" of religious philosophy, accentuated those aspects of Buddhism that are both most different from Western traditions and most distinctively Japanese. This view has fostered in the West a widespread conception of Zen Buddhism as a tradition of exclusively cognitive import, inordinately preoccupied with the ideas of Sunyata, non-duality, and absolute nothingness but with little talk of karma, Marga (the path), compassion or even the "marvelous qualities" of Buddhahood. Such a view fails to give adequate attention to the positive disciplines, including morality, that comprised the actual lives of Buddhists, and easily leads one to think that Buddhists are unable to treat the ordinary world of human activity seriously.2 This view has also placed extreme emphasis on the suddenness of enlightenment with the accompanying idea that to cultivate "correct views" is considered as self-improvement, i.e. gradualism. |
Zen Buddhism was received in the West by a largely university-trained community who accepted, by and large uncritically, the modernist view presented by Suzuki. Perhaps the greatest attraction of Zen for Americans of this period (post-WWII) was to the notion of pure, enlightened experience with its promise of epistemological certainty, attainable through systematic meditation training.3 Unlike psychologically-based movements for personal transformation whose leaders appeared as seekers themselves, Zen Buddhism promised, in the person of the teacher, a master who had actually realized the Buddhist goal of Enlightenment and manifested its qualities continuously in his daily life.
American Zen students have tended to hold these teachers in awe, to the point of regarding their every action as pure and selfless. This tendency to idealize the teacher comes in part from the students' inexperience, but is strongly encouraged by the Zen organization and the teacher himself. Recently I heard an American roshi on the radio promoting his book. He emphasized the uniqueness in zen of the lineage of "mind to mind transmission" from Shakyamuni to the present and how the roshi speaks for or stands in place of the Buddha. Having been attracted to Zen Buddhism by the presence of an "enlightened person," the students came to regard the teacher's behavior as beyond criticism, an unrealistic attitude that had unfortunate consequences.
Beginning in 1975 and continuing to this day, a series of scandals has erupted at one Zen center after another revealing that many Zen teachers have exploited students sexually and financially. This list has included, at various times, the head teachers at The Zen Studies Society in New York City, the San Francisco Zen Center, the Zen Center of Los Angeles, the Cimarron Zen Center in Los Angeles, the now-defunct Kanzeon Zen center in Bar Harbor, Maine, the Morgan Bay Zendo in Surry, Maine, the Providence Zen Center and the Toronto Zen center. These are some of the largest and most influential centers. In most cases the scandals have persisted continually for years, or seemed to end only to arise again. At one center, for example, sex scandals have recurred for approximately twenty-five years with the same teacher involving many women. These scandals have been pervasive as well as persistent, affecting almost all major American Zen Centers.
It should be emphasized that the source of the problem lies not in sexual activity per se, but in the teachers' abuse of authority and the deceptive (and exploitative) nature of these affairs. These affairs were carried on in secret and even publicly denied. The students involved were often lied to by the teachers about the nature of the liaison. In some cases the teacher claimed the sexual experience would advance the student ' s spiritual development. One teacher justified his multiple sexual affairs after their discovery as necessary for strengthening the Zen center. Presumably, this was because the women involved were running satellite centers of his and having a secret affair with the "master" would deepen their understanding and practice.
The abuse of power that these men practiced has had far reaching effects in almost every case. The students involved were often devastated by the knowledge that they had been used by the very person they trusted most. Some required psychotherapy for years afterward. There were mental breakdowns and broken marriages. Zen centers were torn into factions of those who deplored the teacher's behavior and those who denied or excused it. The apologists, when they did not flatly deny what had occurred, would explain it away as the teacher's "crazy wisdom" or more commonly, they would blame the victim or dismiss it by commenting that the teacher isn't perfect. Another explanation was that the student did not yet truly understand the teaching. Disciplining of Zen teachers in America has been rare. Usually, those who objected to the goings-on either left voluntarily or were pushed out of the center by those loyal to the teacher or by the teacher himself. Some of the students who left eventually resumed their practice while others were so disillusioned and embittered that they abandoned Buddhism altogether.
American Zen teachers who have been exposed in their abuse of power have seldom been publicly criticized for their behavior by other Zen teachers, either here or in Japan. In one case, members of the Japanese Zen hierarchy threatened to cut off the training of one student who had wanted an abusive Japanese monk deported. The complaining student did in fact keep quiet, finished his training, and is today a well-known roshi. The monk in question is the roshi already described who has been exploiting his position for twenty-five years.
Reflecting on these problems has led me to investigate Zen history more closely, especially certain key terms that have come to characterize Zen Buddhism. What, for instance, do the terms "dharma transmission" and "roshi" mean which so pepper the conversations of American Zen students and bestow so much authority on the teacher? Is dharma transmission infallible? What does the tradition itself say about regulating the behavior of monastics? Is Zen alone among religions, in having no moral or ethical dimension as many practitioners believe? Are these matters unique to permissive American culture? Do we have an overly idealized view of Ch'an/Zen history? Is there something in our practice that is "lacking" if the supposed exemplars of the training cannot deal responsibly with the people and situations around them? We should keep in mind that from the Zen view truth cannot be expressed in words but rather alluded to only in the spontaneous and natural activities of daily life.4 Is koan training in particular being done in a way that does not carry over to how one lives one's life in the real world? Or, more fundamentally, is koan training mistakenly regarded as fulfilling the Buddha's path in itself? Has it become an end in itself? Is zen training and koan study in particular not about liberation, but more a unique training in spontaneity and learning to perform in certain stylized manners? Are there some aspects of the teacher/student relationship that need to be changed? What weight, if any, should be accorded the subsequent dharma transmissions of a disreputable teacher? What meaning does the term "monk" itself have? How much of Zen, as practiced in the West, is really East Asian but mostly Japanese culture with its special authoritarian and ritualized character?
A full treatment of these questions goes beyond the scope of this paper, but I believe these topics call for examination and thoughtful discussion. The crux of the matter comes to this: how does the institution of Zen Buddhism actually operate in the world as opposed to how we expect it to function based on the mostly idealized view that we have accepted uncritically.
What, then, is the content of this idealized view? First, let us consider the meaning of the term "dharma transmission." According to the widely held view, dharma transmission is the recognition by the teacher that the student has attained the "mind of the Buddha" and that his understanding is equal to that of the teacher. It is the continuity of this chain of enlightened minds supposedly unique to Zen and going back to the historical Buddha that is the conceptual basis for the present teacher's considerable authority. From the point of the Zen tradition it is dharma transmission that justifies regarding the teacher as the Buddha, which is what the Ch'an tradition has done since the Tang dynasty.5 It is this use of a spiritual lineage as the basis for authenticity ("a separate transmission outside of the scriptures" )6 rather than a particular text that distinguishes the Ch'an school from other Chinese Buddhist sects of the period. This interpretation would imply that dharma transmission is given solely on the basis of the spiritual attainment of the student. On investigation, the term "dharma transmission" turns out to be a much more flexible and ambiguous term than we in the West suppose. To be sure, it is given in recognition that the student has attained as deep a realization of mind as the teacher himself. This view, and correctly only this one, is sometimes called "mind-to-mind transmission." Mind-to-mind transmission logically implies the enlightenment of the disciple. However, Dharma transmission has been given for other reasons. According to some scholars, dharma transmission has actually been construed as membership in a teaching lineage, awarded for any of the following, presumed legitimate, reasons: to establish proper political contacts vital to the well-being of the monastery, to cement a personal connection with a student, to enhance the authority of missionaries7 spreading the dharma in foreign countries, or to provide salvation (posthumously, in medieval Japan) by allowing the deceased recipient to join the "blood line" of the Buddha. In the later Sung Dynasty (AD 960-1280), at least, dharma transmission was routinely given to senior monastic officers, presumably so that their way to an abbacy would not be blocked.8 Clearly, enlightenment was not always regarded as essential for dharma transmission. Manzan Dohaku (1636-1714), a Soto reformer, supported this last view citing as authority the towering figure of Japanese Zen, Dogen (1200-1253).9 This became and continues to this day to be the official Soto Zen view.
Philip Kapleau relates the story that Nakagawa Soen Roshi, of the Rinzai sect, had told him that he (Soen Roshi) did not have kensho when Gempo Roshi appointed him his successor.10 According to one scholar's interpretation, formal transmission actually constituted no more than the ritual investiture of a student in an institutionally certified genealogy.11
As a lesson in the significance of institutional history, let us look at the present-day Soto sect in Japan. This sect strives to match the institutional structures of Dogen's time when every Soto temple had to have an abbot and every abbot had to have dharma transmission. In 1984 there were 14,718 Soto Zen temples in Japan and 15,528 Soto priests. Since every abbot has to be a priest, it follows that almost every Soto priest (95%) has dharma transmission. It should be noted that a majority of these priests will spend less than three years in a monastery. Most interestingly, while there is much written in Soto texts on the ritual of dharma transmission, there is almost nothing on the qualifications for it.12
The term "roshi" has also been used in a variety of ways. Once again, a rather idealized interpretation prevails among Zen students who take "roshi" to mean "master," i.e. someone who is fully enlightened to the point that his every gesture manifests the Absolute. Historically in Japan, "roshi" has indeed sometimes been understood to indicate rank based on spiritual development while at other times it is used as a term of address connoting no more than respect. There seem to be occasions in Japanese (especially Soto) usage when it merely denotes an administrative rank. There is no central authority in China or Japan or anywhere else that certifies anyone's official passage into roshihood based on any criteria and certainly not on spiritual attainment. It is not a misstatement to say, as Soko Morinaga Roshi, the former President of [Rinzai] Hanazono College, once remarked, "A roshi is anyone who calls himself by the term and can get other people do the same."
An interesting example can be seen in the person of Philip Kapleau. Mr. Kapleau uses the title " roshi " and his students, as do most Zen students, address him as such. Mr. Kapleau has been extremely influential, both through his personal teaching and his writing of books and articles, in spreading Zen in America and abroad. If nothing else, he has taught for many years and remained free of scandal, something that a number of others with officially sanctioned dharma transmission and titles cannot say. However Mr. Kapleau himself has explicitly stated that he is not a dharma heir of his teacher, Yasutani Roshi, and did not receive the title roshi from him or anyone else.13 Essentially, he took the title himself. This is not to say he is or is not any more or less qualified than anyone else. Interestingly, Mr. Kapleau has " transmitted " to some of his disciples. This is essentially a line beginning with himself, contrary to all other Zen lines, which at least rhetorically maintain the myth of an unbroken lineage dating back to Shakyamuni Buddha.14
"In Korean Zen, the equivalent of roshi/Zen master, the pangjang, is surprisingly an elected position and carries an initial ten-year term... If the master does not perform adequately, a petition by fifty monks would be enough to have a recall vote... A monk's affinities are more with his fellow meditation monks than with a specific master".15 This is extremely different from the Japanese model which is commonly assumed by Americans to be the only authentic form.
The term "monk" is another word that calls for some scrutiny. The Chinese term means "left home person" and is applied exclusively to individuals who have left their families and follow the rules for monks, which include celibacy among other requirements. The Japanese use the same word (obosan) for both "monk" and "priest, " and permit marriage as do some Korean sects.16 In America when used by Zen people who are part of lines originating in Japan, the term "monk" has no well-defined meaning. Celibacy is seldom implied in the American usage of the term. A man who calls himself a monk may be married, may live with someone, or may be dating. A similar situation prevails for nuns. It may even be the case that a "monk" may date a "nun." Some people who refer to themselves as a monk or a nun may in fact be celibate, but they would be a minority in the American Zen world. Nor do American Zen monks appear to follow the other requirements of rules for monks, such as avoiding entertainment, liquor, and socializing with members of the opposite sex. One American Zen group has gone so far as to institute a new ritual, "spiritual union," to recognize and legitimize a sexual relationship between members who otherwise view themselves as a celibate monk and a nun.17
The idealization inherent in the terms "dharma transmission," "roshi" and "monk," has contributed to the problems we have experienced in American Zen. By the very nature of the roles the student ascribes to the titles, he routinely gives trust to the teacher that he would not give to anyone else. This trust is often quite complete and natural, because the wearing of the robes traditionally signifies the turning away from selfish motivations, the vow to save all sentient beings and not to inflict harm. To an observer not familiar with this type of religious practice, the extent to which a student surrenders can appear astonishing. Many people accept this kind of trust in spiritual practice, but it leads to problems when the teacher is not emotionally mature or disciplined enough to assume the responsibility for guiding students. Though the teacher may have some level of attainment, it is too often far from the idealized view of the student or from that promoted by the Zen institutions. "In the Ch'an tradition, the rhetoric maintains that each transmission is perfect, each successor is the spiritual equivalent of his predecessor... the primary feature is its participatory nature; to receive certification of enlightenment from a Ch'an/Zen master is to join the succession of patriarchs and enter into dynamic communion with the sages of ancient times. One either belonged within the lineage of enlightened masters or not; there is no in-between category i.e. 'almost enlightened' or 'rather like a master'".18
In Zen, one can identify a two-fold process, looking-in and looking-out. Looking-in includes the process of meditation; looking-out includes taking the teacher as a model for living and as an inspiration for practice. As is common in Gnostic-type religious practice, the teacher in Zen is the final arbiter of reality. Not only does the teacher judge the student's level of insight/wisdom, but, for closer students at the least, will often comment and judge on every aspect of the disciple's daily life. However, as we have seen, there is often a serious disparity between the student ' s view of the teacher and the teacher's actual life. The students don't hold the teacher to any standard of conduct not merely because they feel they themselves lack the authority to make such judgments about the teacher. They also fear that criticisms which undermine the teacher's authority would cast doubts on the value of their years of practice under that teacher. Some have also come to feel protective of immature Zen institutions in the United States, and hesitate to contribute to the damage that public scandal could cause. Others fear their own rise to a position of teacher would be jeopardized.
As noted earlier, while D. T. Suzuki and others have led people to believe that there was no prescribed Zen morality, a different picture emerges if we look at the historical beginnings of Zen. In China, where Zen began, Zen monasteries became distinct from other Buddhist monasteries with the famous rules of P'ai-chang (749-814) who supposedly prescribed a strict code of behavior for members of the monastic community and severe penalties for improper behavior. All of the classical accounts of Pai-chang's founding of an independent system of Ch'an monastic training, it turns out, may be traced back to a single source, "Regulations of the Ch'an Approach" (Ch'an-men Kuei-shih) written in approximately 960 A.D.19 According to this text, "If the offender had committed a serious offense he was beaten with his own staff. His robe and bowl and other monkish implements were burned in front of the assembled community, and he was [thereby] expelled [from the order of Buddhist monks]. He was then thrown out [of the monastery] through a side gate as a sign of his disgrace. The rules applied to everyone. P'ai-chang further recommended that "a spiritually perceptive and morally praiseworthy person was to be named as abbot." This definitely implies a moral and social aspect to Ch'an life. This is the logic of Zen from its earliest formulation as a distinct Buddhist sect.
If students have offered excessive power to teachers, that does not tell us why so many Zen teachers have taken advantage of the opportunity to abuse their power. Not all of them have, after all. The question arises, which does not often get asked in America Zen circles, what is the connection between attainment and behavior? What are we to make of the evident disparity in someone with institutional sanction, i.e. dharma transmission, supposedly having deep insight but behaving irresponsibly? It is difficult to understand why teachers with exalted titles and long years of meditation practice behave in such selfish, self-serving, dishonest and destructive ways? The Platform Sutra itself states that, "If we do not put it (wisdom) into practice, it amounts to an illusion and a phantom."20 One partial explanation could be that of Chih-i (531-597) the founder of T'ien-t'ai Buddhism and author of the most comprehensive guide to Chinese meditation, who was aware that the very effort of intense concentration may agitate the klesas (afflictions and illusions) generating various feelings and desires that would not occur during normal consciousness, tempting the practitioner away from practice.21 In any case, rarely does one question the teacher's level of attainment.
Could the problem have something to do with the description and view of enlightenment as static, in the sense of seeing only what is, rather than a more dynamic view which also involves that which functions? A view of Buddhist attainment that also focuses on function, rather than objectifying an experience, would also place primary emphasis on context and connections, i.e. relationships with other people and society as a whole.22
The question of the relationship between enlightenment and cultivation has persisted in the Zen tradition from the end of the eighth century onward. Enlightenment in this context refers to the experience of deep insight into the true nature of reality. Cultivation may be taken as living one's day to day life from the enlightened point of view which includes an awareness of other people's full humanity and our connectedness with them.23 Ma-tsu (709-788), a major and influential Ch'an teacher, claimed that the sudden enlightenment experience was inherently so thorough that the whole of the Buddha's path was realized and completed in that experience. This view came to be known as "sudden enlightenment/sudden cultivation." Other major Zen teachers, such as Tsung-mi24 (780-841), Yen-shou (901-975), and the Korean, Chinul (1158-1210) took the view that sudden enlightenment might bring full attainment, but perhaps only for exceptionally endowed individuals such as the Sixth Patriarch Hui-neng and Ma-tsu. For the more ordinary run of mankind, who are less spiritually talented, the enlightenment experience indeed offers a true view of one's self-nature, but without exhausting selfishness. Some delusions, such as existential bewilderment, may be overcome by a deep experience. Other more deep-seated delusions such as craving, hatred and conceitedness can only be overcome by making "that which we have seen a living experience and molding our life accordingly."25 The Buddhist injunction to live an ethical life is comprised of not only exercising restraint and self-control, but also of positively manifesting compassion in our dealings with other people. Ch'an master Yen-shou put the matter in this way:
If the manifesting formations are not yet severed and the defilements and habit energies persist, or whatever you see leads to passion and whatever you encounter produces impediments, then although you have understood the meaning of the non-arising state, your power is still insufficient. You should not grasp at that understanding and say, "I have already awakened to the fact that the nature of the defilements is void," for later when you decide to cultivate, your practice will, on the contrary, become inverted. ... Hence it should be clear that if words and actions are contradictory, the correctness or incorrectness of one's practice can be verified. Measure the strength of your faculties; you cannot afford to deceive yourself.26
As a matter of historical fact Ma-tsu's line survived and has dominated the Zen tradition from the Sung dynasty (960-1280) to this day while Tsung-mi's line, for instance, died out. The result is that the view that sudden enlightenment entailed sudden cultivation became the official rhetoric of Zen Buddhism. The opposing, but still orthodox, Zen view that sudden enlightenment had to be followed by gradual cultivation, has largely been de-emphasized. In Tsung-mi's words, "Awakening from delusion is sudden; transforming an ordinary man into a saint is gradual."27 Most teachers are hardly fully enlightened Buddhas, but are people who need to cultivate themselves further. We need to keep this in mind when we interact with them. Though in Zen practice we must focus on our own shortcomings, there remains a place for common sense in viewing the actions of others, even those of our teachers. The Dalai Lama has written concerning the student's view of the teacher, ". . . too much faith and imputed purity of perception can quite easily turn things rotten."28 Endnotes
1. According to Suzuki, Zen is "extremely flexible in adapting itself to almost any philosophy and moral doctrine as long as its intuitive teaching is not interfered with. It may be found wedded to anarchism or fascism, communism or democracy, atheism or idealism, or any political or economic dogmatism." Zen and Japanese Culture, Princeton University Press, 1959, p. 63. For a fuller discussion of the sources and nationalistic motivations of D.T. Suzuki's presentation of Zen Buddhism see the article by Robert H. Sharf, "The Zen of Japanese Nationalism, " History of Religions, August, 1993. Bernard Faure also analyzes critically some of Suzuki ' s thought in Ch'an Insights and Oversights, Princeton Press, 1993, pp. 52-74
2. Paths To Liberation; the Marga and Its Transformations in Buddhist Thought ed. by Robert E. Buswell, Jr. and Robert Gimello 1992, U. of Hawaii Press, p27.
3. see "Buddhism and the Rhetoric of Religious Experience." delivered at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Religion, 1992, p. 37, Sharf.
4. "Encounter Dialogue and Transformation in Ch'an" by John R. McRae in Paths to Liberation, ed. by Robert Buswell and Robert Gimello, U. of Hawaii Press, 1992, p. 354.
5. p 195 "On the Ritual Use of Ch'an Portraiture in Medieval China, " T. Griffith Foulk and Robert H. Sharf, Cahiers D'Extrême Asie 7
6. For an interesting discussion of the rather late and even controversial acceptance of this self-defining idea in Ch ' an see " Ch ' an Slogans and the Creation of Ch ' an Ideology: ' A Special Transmission Outside the Scriptures, " a paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Religion by Albert Welter, November, 1995.
7. Holmes Welch, Buddhism in China: 1900 to 1950, Harvard University Press, 1967, p. 315. Welch gives the interesting case of one Chinese monk in the twentieth century who gave dharma transmission to another Chinese monk then in Burma, "without ever having met him, and indeed, without even finding out whether he would accept the dharma."
8. "Myth, Ritual, and Monastic Practice," by T. Griffith Foulk in Religion and Society in Tang and Sung China, ed. by Patricia Buckley Ebrey and Peter N. Gregory, U. of Hawaii Press, 1993, p. 160.
9. Soto Zen in Mediaeval Japan, William M. Bodiford, U. of Hawaii Press, 1993, p. 215. "Zen dharma transmission between master and disciple could occur whether or not the disciple had realized enlightenment, just so long as the ritual of personal initiation had been performed." For a further discussion of the surprising usages of dharma transmission see: Welch previously cited, The Rhetoric of Immediacy, Bernard Faure, Princeton University Press, 1991, and Foulk. See also "On the Ritual Use of Ch'an Portraiture in Medieval China, " T. Griffith Foulk and Robert H. Sharf, Cahiers d'Extrême Asie, 7, 1993 pp. 149-219
10. Letter from Philip Kapleau to Koun Yamada, Feb. 17, 1986.
11. See Sharf, footnote 20, p. 44
12. The Zen Institute in Modern Japan" by T. Griffith Foulk, P. 157-177 in Zen:Tradition and Transition, Kenneth Kraft ed., NY: Grove Press, 1988.
13. Public letter from Yamada Roshi 1/16/86. Koun Yamada Roshi was Yasutani Roshi's heir. He became the leader of the Sanbokyodan school of Zen started by Yasutani Roshi and also gave dharma transmission to Robert Aitken. Also , letter from Mr. Kapleau to Koun Yamada 2/17/86
14. It is also true that almost no modern scholar of Zen, Eastern or Western, takes seriously the idea of an unbroken Zen lineage going back to Shakyamuni Buddha.
15. The Zen Monastic Experience, " Robert E. Buswell, Princeton University Press, 1992, pp. 204-208
16. From 1910-1945 Korea was under the military occupation of Japan. Under the pressure and influence of married Japanese Zen priests, some Korean monks took wives and started families. This caused a split with the traditional, celibate monks in the Korean Sangha that became so severe that in 1954 President Syngman Rhee was called in to resolve the dispute. see pp. 30-31, The Way of Korean Zen by Kusan Sunim, Weatherhill, 1985.
17. Mountain Record Magazine, vol. XII, number 1, Fall, 1993, p. 59, a publication of Zen Mountain Monastery, Woodstock, NY.
18. "Encounter Dialogue and Transformation in Ch'an" by John R. McRae in Paths to Liberation, ed. by Robert Buswell and Robert Gimello, U. of Hawaii Press, 1992, p. 353,354.
19. The Ch'an "School" and its Place in the Buddhist Monastic Tradition, Ph.D. dissertation of Theodore Griffith Foulk, University of Michigan, 1987, available from UMI Dissertation Information Service, U.S. telephone number: (800) 521-0600, p. 348
20. The Platform Scripture, trans. by W. T. Chan (New York, 1963), p. 69.
21. Paths to Liberation, "Encounter Dialogue and the Transformation of the Spiritual Path in Chinese Ch'an, " McRae, p. 347
22. In relation to the famous verse of Bodhidharma: A separate transmission outside of scripture Not founded on words or letters, Point directly to one ' s mind See one ' s nature and become Buddha. (Jpn. kensho jobutsu) In the Rinzai koan curriculum, " ...kensho is something that one does [a verb, not a noun], it is not primarily something that one has. " from " Koan and Kensho in the Rinzai Zen Curriculum, " an unpublished paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Religion by G. Victor Sogen Hori, Nov. 21, 1994. Permission to quote granted by the author.
23. For an interesting discussion of essence/function and " integral practice, " the idea that the degree of integration into one ' s behavior was the criterion for achievement of the teachings of the sages see A. Charles Muller, The Composition of Self-Transformation Thought in Classical East Asian Philosophy and Religion. " Toyo Gakuen Kiyo, March, 1993.
24. Tsung-mi was a patriarch in both a Ch'an line and the Hua-yen sect of Buddhism. He wrote the most complete analysis of Ch'an Buddhist sects in ninth century China. For a full treatment of this important Ch'an personality see Tsung-mi and the Sinification of Buddhism, Peter N. Gregory, Princeton University Press, 1991.
25. see The Jewel Ornament of Liberation by SGam.Po.Pa, trans. by Herbert Guenther, Shambala Publications, 1959, footnote 1, p. 252.
26. The Collected Works of Chinul, Robert Buswell, U. of Hawaii Press, 1983, p. 305. This entire book is a treasure for Zen students. Of special interest is the chapter entitled, "Excerpts from the Dharma Collection and Special Practice Record with Personal Notes," written one year before Chinul's death in which he comments on varieties of enlightenment experience and how careful one must be in one's practice. Modern Korean Zen still bears the strong imprint of Chinul.
27. The Collected Works of Chinul, Buswell, p. 278
28. Snow Lion Magazine, Winter Supplement 1995, p. 1.
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/7/2010, 2:10 am|| |
Instead of trying to cut and paste this article / interview, I am just providing the link. The article has different fonts and photos and I would just make a mess of it.
If you find some pieces of the article that you would like to comment on, suggest you cut and paste that paragraph.
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/7/2010, 3:08 am|| |
Umm I think Josh
I have seen some of the places mentioned,they were not for me. I was surprised with Walter Nowick and sad about San Francisco, but I bet they are stronger for it and will not be fooled so easily again, I do not know as I am out of touch.
It is not what I found in Japan, I suppose when I went there I had had enough of the guru circuit, I seemed to have met so many people who spoke in concepts, and versions their ideas their truths, from there levels .limited understanding of something that had a great depth but packaged as ultimate understanding. Under these circumstances I tend to sit zazen on my own but we are never on one's own.
When I went to the temple in Japan, I was always being told I was fortunate to meet the Abbott,I believe this was there are always depths of teachers, I could feel this when the Abbot left and the talks were from another teacher, not meaning to be critical, everyone including Dick Baker teaches a different thing. It is where it leads and is it relevant.Now the Abbott I met, was a teacher, he was a man,and he lived a deep spiritual life. I was the only westerner so it was not for everyone and it was pretty tough.At a later stage westerners did come,I remember one group wanting a zen teacher who would be their figure head,they wanted their views and behaviour to prevail, and have a figure head once a yrear who would be run a retreat their way. The group isolated themselves from the temple, they did not mix in, I think they were a bit scared. they would fwalk in a line doing fast kinhin, when going to the zendo, I remember hearing them coming at some very early hour charging through the temple, when we all walked without a noise,I am sorry but I hid behind a pillar as they charged past, when they had gone I carried on, one of the teachers at the same time stepped out from his own pillar and carried on,we did not smile or make eye contact,we were on our way to the zendo, and that is where we went. The Abbot had a very good insight into me at this point, and understood more fully why I was there.
Now the Abbot was always the Abbot,he saw more deph to me by the way I walked and lived in his temple, than perhaps I could see in my self. We were celebrating a new moon once and were having a little cup of sake on the raked gravel, it was at night and clod, the sake was good, I was admiring his drawing of a dragon that a sculptuor had carved out,I wondered over to him as informal as I could get, chisa san he said and laughed in a nice way, I said his name back, in an informal sort of way,but still including the roshi title, we looked at each other, i would have perhaps like to have asked him about his paint brushes , or maybe talked about the dragon,he would have liked to have said something too,but we could not talk there was no interpreter.
He did help me find these greater depths, that he knew I wanted to find,he did not do this with concepts and strange behaviour, he did not have a hidden agenda,his teaching was passed on heart to heart.
The spiritual paths we sought were easily cofused by our own lack of understanding, mistaking the finger pointing at the moon for the moon itself
My love as usual
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/7/2010, 3:17 am|| |
Means of Authorization: Establishing Hierarchy in Ch'an /Zen Buddhism in America
Revised paper from presentation at the 1999 (Boston) Meeting of the American Academy of Religion © Used with permission
| Ch'an /Zen Buddhism has become widely accepted in the West during the past fifty years. At the head of Zen institutions sits the person of the Master/ roshi . Through the mechanisms of sectarian histories, ritual performance, a special language, koans , mondos , _ftn2  and most importantly through the ideas of Dharma transmission and Zen lineage, the supposedly enlightened Zen Master/ roshi is presented to the West as a person with superhuman qualities. This presentation, mostly idealistic, is meant to establish, maintain, and enhance the authority of the Zen Master. It is also meant to legitimate the Zen institutions and establish hierarchical structures within it. It is my contention that this idealistic presentation has been widely and uncritically accepted in the West, but more importantly it is the source of a variety of problems in Western Zen. |
I begin the paper by giving four examples showing the extremely idealistic presentation of Zen in America. The examples will be from American, Korean, Japanese, and Chinese teachers. I will show that this presentation of Ch'an /Zen is widely accepted and in addition, display some of the consequences of this acceptance. The American sociologist Peter L. Berger will be introduced along with his view of the social construction of reality. Berger's theory will be used throughout the paper as a model for viewing Zen institutions. The defining terms of Zen; Master/ roshi, Dharma transmission, and Zen lineage as well as koans and ritual behavior will be more closely examined. However idealistically these terms are presented to Zen students, the reality of how they have been used historically and what they mean in an institutional setting is quite different. This idealistic presentation of the defining terms of Zen is used to establish a mostly undeserved authority for the Master/ roshi and to legitimate the hierarchical structures of Ch'an /Zen. The result of this presentation of Zen often leads to the Master/ roshi being alienated, in Berger's sense of the word. The paper ends with a few suggestions for change in Zen from within the larger Buddhist tradition.
Richard Baker, in perhaps the best selling Zen book in the English language, Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind describes the term roshi in the following manner,
It should be noted that this was written as the introduction to the words and teachings of Mr. Baker's teacher, Suzuki- roshi. This introduction was meant to describe a real person, and by extension, as is clearly stated, all people with the title roshi. It is not an idealized reference to a heavenly being or some distant or mythological religious figure.
A roshi is a person who has actualized that perfect freedom which is the potentiality for all human beings. He exists freely in the fullness of his whole being. The flow of his consciousness is not the fixed repetitive patterns of our usual self-centered consciousness, but rather arises spontaneously and naturally from the actual circumstances of the present. The results of this in terms of the quality of his life are extraordinary-buoyancy, vigor, straightforwardness, simplicity, humility, security, joyousness, uncanny perspicacity and unfathomable compassion. His whole being testifies to what it means to live in the reality of the present. Without anything said or done, just the impact of meeting a personality so developed can be enough to change another's whole way of life. But in the end it is not the extraordinariness of the teacher that perplexes, intrigues, and deepens the student, it is the teacher's utter ordinariness. _ftn3 
Zen Master Seung Sahn, who is the most famous Korean Zen Master in the West, in Dropping Ashes on the Buddha , one of his better selling books, related the following exchange of letters that indicates his view of the Zen Master. In a letter to the Master, someone asked, "If a Zen Master is capable of doing miracles, why doesn't he do them?... Why doesn't Soen Sunim do as Jesus did- make the blind see, or touch a crazy person and make him sane? Wouldn't even such a showy miracle as walking on water make people believe in Zen so that they would begin to practice..." The Master (that is, Seung Sahn) replied, "Many people want miracles, and if they witness miracles they become attached to them. But miracles are only a technique. They are not the true way. If a Zen Master used miracles often, people would become very attached to this technique of his, and they wouldn't learn the true way..." _ftn4 
Soen Shaku, the famous Rinzai Master who was D. T. Suzuki's teacher, commenting on Zen satori _ftn5  states, "To say the Buddha had a satori experience sounds as if we are talking about a Zen monk, but I think it is permissible to say that a monk's attaining satori corresponds to the Buddha's awakening effortlessly." _ftn6  Here we see that Zen satori is equated with the historical Buddha's great enlightenment, the very zenith of Buddhist attainment.
Since the Master/ roshi represents the Zen institution, it does not require too big a leap of imagination to make the correspondence between the present day Zen institution and the historical Buddha by laying the groundwork for the lineage convention.
The well known Chinese Ch'an teacher, Master Sheng-yen also said of the Zen Master, "it should be remembered that the mind of the master is ever pure... and even if the master tells lies, steals, and chases women..., he is still to be considered a true master as long as he scolds his disciples for their transgressions." _ftn7 
The reader is informed that no matter what the Zen Master does, it is beyond both the reader's and the student's ken, because the Master's mind is ever pure, a mysterious state beyond the ordinary person's comprehension. The student is informed that the Master's authority must be taken totally on faith in the infallibility and omniscience that is implicit in his title.
The student is incapable of making any judgments relating to the Master's activities. Zen's self-definition as a tradition beyond words and letters would lead one to believe that words and thinking are not important. Yet here we see, in terms of institutional authority and hierarchy, it is precisely words and title that are of primary importance.
Aside from Master Sheng-yen's implicit claim that the Master is beyond conventional morality, the above manner of describing the qualities of a Master/ roshi does not make any explicit ethical or moral claims. This does not mean that such claims are absent from Ch'an / Zen. The basis of Zen practice is often encapsulated in the six paaramitaas , the second paaramitaa ( `siila ) being variously translated as morality or discipline. Another avenue where morality enters Zen practice is through the ten precepts, sometimes translated as the "Ten Grave Precepts."
Robert Aitken- roshi underlines his understanding of the importance of the precepts by stating, "Without the precepts as guidelines, Zen Buddhism tends to become a hobby, made to fit the needs of the ego." _ftn8 
Aitken- roshi is not alone in this belief, as it is commonly maintained in Zen and Buddhism in general, that the precepts are the foundation on which the meditation practice is based. Though there is a separation between how Zen practice works and the moral and ethical consequences of that practice, however since the Master/ roshi represents the fullness of the practice, when authority and hierarchy in Ch'an /Zen are examined, the two are tied tightly together.
In the four quotes of the modern day teachers cited above, one is given a rather exalted and idealized picture of what it means to be a Master or roshi . It is interesting to see how two of these teachers have manifested their words and how their students have responded. Though no mention is made of moral or ethical issues in any of the above statements, it does seem as if the students do have moral expectations, as we shall see below.
About two years after writing the above description of a roshi , Richard Baker was made roshi shortly before his teacher Suzuki- roshi , died at the end of 1971. Ten years later, Baker- roshi was involved in a scandal that revealed his repeated instances of sexual misconduct on his part, as well as his living in high style while paying the many members working at Center's enterprises something close to subsistence wages. This affair was extremely divisive for the San Francisco Zen Center _ftn9  , and resulted in Baker- roshi leaving the Center after long, heated negotiations over the amount of his severance pay and the ownership rights to the art collection and library purchased during his tenure as its roshi and abbott.
Some years later, Seung Sahn too was caught up in sexual scandals, having, over a period of years, simultaneous affairs with a number of his students directing his satellite Centers spread across the country. Seung Sahn's explanation was that the women needed his power to keep the Centers running. This affair was very divisive to his followers causing many people to leave.
As research for this paper, I did a mail survey of one hundred fifty Zen Centers and individual Zen practitioners across the country. The questionnaire consisted of a cover letter and a second page with a list of eight terms. _ftn10  The purpose of the survey was to see how people from different Zen Centers understood a number of key terms, that define or color what Zen means in America. I received thirty-eight replies. Six were from people whom I knew were either in charge of large Centers or had Dharma transmission from their teachers. The results of the survey were inconclusive, though it yielded valuable anecdotal material such as the chronicles below of the retreat led by Carol and the meeting of a North American Zen Center. The term Dharma transmission elicited the closest agreement among respondents, most everyone stated explicitly or seemed to imply that the Zen lineage went back to the historical figure Sakyamuni. Most respondents expressed little awareness of the varied ways in which the terms Zen Master/ roshi , Dharma transmission, and Zen lineage have been used during Zen's long history.
Words have power. It is through words that we understand the world around us, give the world meaning, and to a certain degree, determine what we actually see. Presenting Zen in an idealized way has consequences. I would like to relate two stories to underline the strength of the authority attributed to those in teaching roles in Zen, at least in America. One respondent to my survey, in addition to answering my questions, related the following story. In North America, in 1998, a retreat was held under the direction of a Zen teacher we will call Carol, with eight full-time and a number of part-time students participating. _ftn11 
The retreat started normally, however on the second day, Carol added her name to the list of dead on whose behalf the chanting on retreats is dedicated. On the third day private interviews as part of the koan study, were cancelled. In the evening Carol took the group to the movies, an unheard of activity during a seven-day retreat. On the fourth day Carol was absent most of the time; she had pizza and champagne served for the evening meal, which normally would consist of rather plain vegetarian, non-alcoholic fare. On the fifth day she announced that everyone would be moving to Miami and should begin studying Spanish. She also followed this announcement with a semi-coherent discourse about inner circles and outer circles. In the afternoon she showed the video of Steven Spielberg's film " ET ." Subsequently she announced the group was going to have a funeral for her to celebrate the death of her ego. She would leave the room and the group was to plan the funeral and then tell her when they were ready. In the group were two women who had studied with Carol for over fifteen years. My correspondent related to me that after Carol left the room, he asked these women if perhaps Carol was having some sort of mental breakdown and suggested maybe the show should stop. Another student raised a question about psychodrama. The two senior students assured them that all was well. My correspondent recalls saying to himself, "What the hell, the show must go on" and remained on the retreat despite his skepticism about Carol's mental condition.
The group devised a funeral ceremony, Carol came out and the group performed it. Carol then claimed that since she was now dead she didn't know what her name was, but for the time being she should be called "Zen Ma." The fellow relating the story said that at this point he wondered if Jonestown wasn't next, but instead of cyanide laced Kool-Aid, the group then had more champagne. After dinner, Carol lapsed into a long ramble about meeting Swami Muktananda. Soon she stopped, announcing that she was feeling negative energy, and asked, "Does anyone in the room have negative energy?" My correspondent confessed that he did indeed, but did not want to discuss it. Carol commanded, "Just say it," to which the fellow replied that he had an interest in being someone's student but not someone's follower. She responded by undertaking a talk about Tibet and Milarepa, five minutes into which she stopped, and looking at the fellow said," So why don't you get the hell out of here?" Which, at that point, is exactly what he did.
About two weeks after the retreat Carol decided that the two women who were her long-time students and who had assured my correspondent of the teacher's sanity, were witches, ordering them to leave as well. Carol then gave away her belongings and moved to Florida.
It is interesting to note that despite Carol's bizarre behavior and disjointed speech, not one person on the retreat left on their own initiative or raised a question to the teacher directly. The two senior students maintained that nothing was wrong when a question was raised privately about the teacher's mental state. After two months, Carol returned from Florida and all the people who had been on the retreat, returned to study with her, except for the fellow who related this story to me. Again, I have related this story, as an illustration, albeit an extreme one, of the sort of unquestioning respect and obedience given to the Zen teacher by Western students. It also underlines the fact that the imputed attainment of the teacher repeated in one Zen context or another, will more often than not out weigh or transform what is happening in front of the student's eyes. It should be noted, that Carol was not an officially sanctioned Master or roshi , but was functioning in that role without the actual title.
The second story I would like to relate took place in 1999. A meeting was held by a North American Zen Center concerning the problematic behavior of a related Center's Zen Master, more specifically a pattern of excessive drinking, perhaps actual alcoholism, and instances of "sexual misconduct." I was told by one attendee that many of the group members were thoroughly baffled by the fact that one who has supposedly attained full enlightenment, the Zen Master, could manifest such unpleasantly unenlightened conduct. My informant wondered where these students had gotten this idea about the Master's "full enlightenment" along with its attendant immunity from human shortcomings. The Master himself had never made any such claims to "full enlightenment" or immunity to human shortcomings.
To summarize, in the definitions and descriptions of the Master or roshi quoted at the beginning of this paper, there is an extraordinary claim to authority. These descriptions were given by individuals who are themselves Masters/ roshis , the very official spokespersons for Zen institutions. But from the examples given above, it appears that there is some disparity between the student's credulous expectations resulting from this idealized view and what takes place in the real world. It is fair to ask, what are the bases for such claims to authority and how valid are these claims? That these idealizations may have caused problems in the Far East is not the concern of this paper. However, it is my contention that an idealized Asian version of Zen has been uncritically accepted in America and that it is a source of problems here. Around Zen Centers in America, there has been very little if any discussion pertaining to the meaning of terms and titles that define Zen or to how these terms and titles have actually been used in the East during Zen's long history. Perhaps one of the reasons behind this limited opportunity for discussion is that, lacking any sort of theoretical framework or critical focus, members of the Zen community have recourse only to the context provided by their personal experiences. This personal context to a large extent is the world of Zen, its language, ideas, and ways of thinking. If the student attempts to look critically at Zen institutions, he/she can do so only within the context and language of Zen, which for reasons discussed later in this paper, idealizes itself, its roles, and important defining terms. Even in this situation of critically examining Zen institutions, the student often ends up empowering the very authority figures in question, just as we shall see in this paper, the language of Zen was intended to do.
The confusion created by assumptions about enlightenment and spiritual authority is not confined to the above-mentioned North American Center, or even to the U.S. I have received correspondence from France, Germany, U.K., Australia, and New Zealand in response to a paper _ftn12  I wrote that has been posted on the Internet, dealing with the disparity between the ways in which the institutions of Zen Buddhism actually operate in the world and our expectation of them based on an idealized view that has been uncritically accepted. A person from France who contacted me and asked to translate my paper into French, specifically stated that his reason for doing so was because a French Buddhist nun had told him that a Zen Master is a fully enlightened person. These responses indicate that dogma of this sort is pervasive throughout Western Zen, and that Zen organizations fail to provide a context in which such assumptions can be critically addressed.
As an antidote to this situation, I believe it is necessary to view the Zen world, its hierarchy, and authority figures through a theoretical framework separate from Zen. I think one such a framework is provided by the work of the American sociologist Peter L. Berger. Parts of this paper will be informed by Berger's view of the social construction of reality and its inherent dialectical character. While Berger's views may seem like truisms now, thirty years after the publication of The Sacred Canopy _ftn13  , I believe they provide a much-needed critical insight into the social and symbolic structures of the Zen tradition. The adoption of Asian, predominantly Japanese conventions by Western aspirants over the past fifty years has been , ironically for a school that supposedly emphasizes personal inquiry, uncritical to say the least.
In this paper we are primarily concerned with the individual practitioner's view of Zen roles and institutions in America. The view most frequently accepted is that propagated by the Zen institutions themselves. More specifically, we will examine authority and hierarchy, how it is established, how it is maintained, and how it is produced and reproduced. In the case of the earlier mentioned North American Zen Group who met to address problems resulting from the Master's excessive drinking and "sexual misconduct" we can see an illustration of the functional outcome of the process I wish to discuss. Recall that the person who recounted this meeting was surprised that so many students believed that the Master's enlightenment to be so "full" or "complete" that he/she would be incapable of quite human frailties, despite the fact the Master himself had never made such claims. However, it is not necessary for any particular Master to make claims concerning his/her own enlightenment or his/her own level of perfection because Zen institutional traditions, in one form or another repeat this claim for the person sitting in the role of Zen Master. In so far as the particular Zen follower is adequately socialized into the given group, he cannot but see the Master as expressing the Mind of the Buddha. Indeed, the Master often believes the same thing. Through its structure, its ritual practices, and perhaps most significantly through its use of a special set of terms and definitions, the institution reinforces this claim for the Zen Master.
The term Zen Master is especially glorified, and together with the two related concepts of Dharma transmission and Zen lineage forms a conceptual triad that supports the structure of authority within the Zen institutions. The terms of the triad support and reflect each other and their mutually dependent connection is presented in an idealized fashion to establish the imputed power, sacredness, and otherness of the Master. Along with the above triad, the use of koans, mondo, and ritual behavior act as supporting elements in establishing this authority.Variations of this paradigmatic idealization have been repeated by most exponents of Zen in the West, from D. T. Suzuki on.
The four examples that opened this paper are demonstrations of this idealized view. It is also repeated in the many stories falsely presented as history in the form of mondo or as koan s along with their accompanying commentaries. I think a remark Noam Chomsky made with reference to political indoctrination is applicable to this case. That is to say, the essence of propaganda is repetition.
For someone who has not spent much time around American Zen Centers, it is hard to believe how strong is the belief, among the students, in the authority of the teacher. Clearly, one does not begin Zen practice with this belief; it is acquired over time as part of a complex, collective process. Human beings, necessarily through a dialectical (that is, dialogue both internal with oneself and external with others) and collective enterprise create society and then society, as objectified reality is reflected back and contributes to the creation of the human individual. _ftn14 
Considering the Zen world as a micro society, the collective world building of Zen takes place through the mechanisms of group and ritual practice. In addition all the information communicated, both verbally and non-verbally between people, acquired through the talks of the teacher and the senior students, and assimilated through the extensive collected writings and commentaries of the Zen tradition, fill out and define the Zen world. Through this complex of mechanisms, a powerful belief system is imparted to the American Zen student.
Berger states, "that society is the product of man and that man is the product of society, are not contradictory. They reflect the inherently dialectical character of the societal phenomenon." _ftn15  He also points out that, " man not only produces a world, but he also produces himself ... This world, of course, is culture...Culture must be continually produced and reproduced by man...Man also produces language and, on its foundation and by means of it, a towering edifice of symbols that permeate every aspect of his life." Hence we see that, "Society is constituted and maintained by acting human beings" from which follows, "the world-building activity of man is always and inevitably a collective enterprise... the humanly produced world attains the character of objective reality." _ftn16 
Each individual is confronted by an overwhelming input of experience. In order to avoid a feeling of chaos, it is necessary to organize and make sense of this plethora of data, that is, literally to make the world. This process of world building carries with it a new vocabulary with new mental constructions and meanings. Let us now consider carefully each member of the triad of terms along with koan s and ritual behavior.
Anyone who visits a Zen Center is usually struck by the formal and ritualized atmosphere of the temple or zendo , an atmosphere that creates a sense of the sacred. Before entering we remove our shoes, finding a certain quiet, the smell of incense, the altar with Buddha statues surrounded by offerings of flowers and fruit and a priest, monk, or nun in formal robes whom others show respect with bows or even prostrations.
One quickly learns that there exists a hierarchy as clearly defined and rigid as anything in Western religious institutions. If one becomes involved with the life of the group, one learns that there are set ways to behave in the temple , in the meditation hall, in sharing common meals, greeting other members, monks or nuns, and when meeting the teacher, Master, or roshi . One also learns a whole new language comprised of a new set of terms and definitions. The adoption and continued use of this language will form the person's view of the world and his/her place in it - - both in relation to the larger world and to his/ her place within the Zen world. The views espoused within the Zen community will, to one degree or another reshape and color the person's way of thinking about and views of the world. A person who becomes actively involved with a Zen group not only identifies themselves with Zen ideas and meanings, but also sees himself/herself as expressing these ideas through speech, attitude, and activity and as a representative of Zen itself. Interestingly, many people then attribute their new worldview to the fruit of "practice." What appears as spiritual fruit may in actuality be the adjustment to being schooled and indoctrinated into a prefabricated world-view.
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/7/2010, 3:30 am|| |
In the Zen world, the Master is at the head of the hierarchy and is legitimated through the act of Dharma transmission. The Master stands in for or represents the absolute reality represented by the Buddha. This identification of the person of the Master with absolute reality serves as a sacred and universal reference and is the means by which their authority and by extension, the authority of the institution is legitimated. The human Master is clearly flesh and blood, however he/she is also supposedly beyond human given the belief that his/her "mind is ever pure" and his/her activities come from the absolute.
Historically in Japan, " roshi " has indeed sometimes been understood to indicate rank based on spiritual development, while at other times it has been used as a term of address connoting no more than simple respect. There are occasions in Japanese (especially Soto) usage when it merely denotes an administrative rank. In a manner somewhat analogous to the historical bestowal of "Dharma transmission" for a number of different expedient reasons, the term " roshi " or its various analogs, appears to have meant different things in different circumstances and at different times. There is not, and never has been a central authority in China or Japan or anywhere else that certifies anyone's official passage into roshi hood based on any sort of formal criteria, certainly not on the basis of spiritual attainment. Perhaps Soko Morinaga- roshi, the former President of [Rinzai] Hanazono College, said it most aptly, "A roshi is anyone who calls himself by the term and can get other people to do the same." _ftn17 
An interesting example can be seen in the case of the American Zen teacher Philip Kapleau. Mr. Kapleau uses the title " roshi ," and his students, along with most others involved in American Zen, address him as such. Mr. Kapleau has been extremely influential, both through his personal teaching and his writing of books and articles, in spreading Zen in America and abroad. He merits respect if for no other reason than the fact that he has taught for many years, while remaining untainted by financial or sexual scandals. This is an accomplishment that a number of others with officially sanctioned Dharma transmission and titles cannot claim.
However Mr. Kapleau himself has explicitly stated that he is not a Dharma heir of his teacher, Yasutani- roshi , and did not receive the title roshi from Yasutani or from anyone else. _ftn18  Essentially, he took the title himself. This is not to say he is any more or less qualified than anyone else, only that he has never received formal recognition from an elder teacher in one of the "officially" recognized lines of Zen. Interestingly, Mr. Kapleau has "transmitted" to some of his disciples, establishing a line basically beginning with himself, and thereby different from all other Zen lines, in that these, at least rhetorically, maintain the myth of an unbroken lineage dating back to Shakyamuni. It is also true that virtually no scholars, either Eastern or Western, take seriously the idea of an unbroken Zen lineage going back to Sakyamuni Buddha.
Perhaps surprising to Americans, who commonly assume the Japanese model to be the most authentic, or even the only authentic form, is that there exists other, older, and no less authentic models of Zen monasticism, such as that of Korean Zen ( Son ). Robert Buswell, in his study of Zen monastic life in modern day Korea, describes an organizational structure that is refreshingly different from the Japanese-inspired centers familiar to most Western Zen students. In Korean Zen, the equivalent of roshi /Zen master, the pangjang , occupies an elected position that is held for an initial ten-year term. If the Master does not perform adequately, a petition by fifty monks would be enough to have a recall vote. A monk's affinities are more with his fellow meditation monks than with a specific master." _ftn19  That the monk's allegiances are more to his fellow meditators than towards a particular master is an orientation towards group practice that we in America may want to explore further.
This type of structure would remove much of the dependence on the teacher and the resulting idealization and hierarchy that are encountered in Japanese-style centers. The contemporary and prominent Masataka Toga- roshi has stated, " In Japanese Zen, loyalty is most important. Loyalty to one's teacher and to the tradition is more important than the Buddha and the Dharma. " _ftn20  This attitude may be well suited to Japanese culture, a culture very different from our own. However, it may be time for American practitioners to begin to explore structures of practice not modeled exclusively on the Japanese form, but on ways that are more compatible with our own culture of democratic and egalitarian ideals. They might places less emphasis on absolute loyalty to a superior or to an institution and more emphasis on equality and minimizing hierarchical structures.
In a sense, Zen has inverted its self-definition of "a separate transmission outside of words and letters." We should keep in mind that according to the Zen view truth cannot be expressed in words but rather only alluded to in spontaneous and natural activities of daily life. _ftn21  However, Zen gives great prestige and authority to a ceremonially invested institutional role, whether Master, roshi , or Shi-fu, rather than basing authority on the actual lived, observable activity of the individual.
At least in theory, this latter criterion is the only legitimate means in the East of discerning the mark of the sage. It is based on the concept of t'i-yung , usually translated as essence-function, which is prominent in all East Asian philosophical systems. _ftn22  According to this view, it is the transformation of the personality reflected in a person's ability to act spontaneously (directly) and without hindrance in response to phenomenal situations, that marks the sage or enlightened one. The Master/ roshi is said to be realized, that is to make the ideal of enlightened activity "real in his everyday experience." _ftn23 
Zen has put the cart before the horse. Zen institutions define any teacher having the title Master or roshi as a sage or enlightened being. This imputation of character is independent of the teacher manifesting any qualities that could be seen as marks of realization or enlightenment.
Regardless of whether or not the individual can manifest any evidence of such an exalted level of spiritual attainment, this status is conferred upon the teacher with the institutional title. By virtue of the investiture of an institutional position the individual automatically acquires a whole array of impressive qualities. He is extraordinary, or else utterly ordinary. He also gains the ability to act and speak from the perspective of the Absolute, to perform miracles, to always maintain a pure mind, and ultimately becomes the repository, if not the living manifestation of the perfectly realized mind of Shakyamuni Buddha. The students are not empowered to have confidence in their own abilities of empirical observation and intuition to assess the actual moment-to-moment everyday conduct of a teacher.
Though Zen institutions persist in defining themselves as a tradition, "not depending on words or letters," there is an unstated imperative to do precisely that. It is expected and repeatedly taught that the students should defer to and exalt the term "Master" or " roshi ," a title and the ceremonial position it stands for, rather than relying on their own good sense and intuition in matters relating to the teacher's authority. There is a deception operating here. On the one hand Zen rhetoric tells its followers to be in the moment, to see what is in front of their eyes- "look look" Lin-chi exclaims. _ftn24 
Yet, on the other hand, Zen rhetoric implies to its followers that they are incapable of seeing what is going on in front of them, when seeing is directed towards the Master/ roshi . The nature of enlightened activity must be taken by virtue of a title, on faith. What the Master does, is by definition, enlightened activity.
Clearly, this is a situation that is disempowering to Zen students who accept or internalize this construction of reality. It places the Master in a position somehow over and above the human, since all the Masters activities are enlightened, coming from the Absolute. Hence, viewing the Master is tantamount to viewing Buddhahood in the flesh. Not surprisingly, the North American Zen group mentioned earlier, being well socialized into Zen's rhetoric, expressed astonishment that a Zen Master was capable of displaying human foibles. The Master transcending being human, becomes an icon, an idealized representation of a greater truth beyond comprehension and judgment. For example, one bright undergraduate philosophy major, after some reading about Zen and upon seeing a Chinese Master walk across a room for the first time, gave expression to this icon-like view by stating, "it was intense man, it was intense."
Dharma transmission, according to convention, is the formal recognition on the part of the Master that the student has attained an understanding equal to that of the teacher. A person with Dharma transmission in the Rinzai line who teaches in a large city in New York State provided the following definition of Dharma transmission to my questionnaire, "Formal acknowledgement by a teacher that a student is officially his/her Dharma heir--that the wordless understanding passed from Sakyamuni Buddha to Mahakashyapa and on and on has now come to this one time , one place.
Written and recorded in the lineage." The view adhered to by this teacher is a widely held one regarding the transmission of "authentic" Zen teaching. This acknowledgement by a teacher that a student is a Dharma heir is supposedly identical with the fully realized mind of the Buddha. It is the continuity of this chain of enlightened minds in an unbroken lineage, supposedly unique to Zen, going back to the historical but also highly mythologized figure of Sakyamuni Buddha (and beyond according to another respondent) that forms the conceptual basis for the present teacher's considerable authority. According to the traditional Zen viewpoint, Dharma transmission justifies giving the teacher the authority that one would accord to the Buddha himself. Dharma transmission has been employed in this manner since the Tang dynasty (CE 618-907). _ftn25 
It is this use of a spiritual lineage as the basis for authenticity ("a special teaching outside the scriptures") _ftn26  rather than dependence on the authority of a particular scripture, or in conjunction with the scriptures, that distinguishes the Ch'an school from other Chinese sects of the period. This view implies that Dharma transmission is given solely on the basis of the spiritual attainment of the student and further that Dharma transmission is received from one's living teacher, rather than in a dream or in some other fashion. _ftn27 
On investigation, the term "Dharma transmission" turns out to be a much more flexible and ambiguous term than we in the West suppose. To be sure, it is in theory given in recognition of the student having attained as deep a realization of mind as the teacher himself (assuming the teacher has a deep realization). This view, for contemporary Western Zen followers is the understanding of the term "mind-to-mind transmission."
Mind-to-mind transmission logically implies the enlightenment of the disciple, for if the teacher is enlightened, and what is being transmitted is the teacher's enlightened mind, then the student must be also enlightened. However, Dharma transmission has over the course of Ch'an /Zen's long history been given for other reasons. It can be awarded for any one of a number of reasons, presumed to be legitimate at a particular time or in certain conditions.
According to some scholars, Dharma transmission has actually been used as a means for bestowing membership in a teaching lineage. It has been used to establish political contacts vital to the well-being of the monastery, to maintain the continuity of the lineage though the recipient has not opened his/her Dharma eye, to cement a personal connection with a student, to enhance the authority of missionaries spreading the Dharma in foreign countries, _ftn28  or to provide salvation (posthumously, in medieval Japan) by allowing the deceased recipient to join the "blood line" of the Buddha.
In the later Sung Dynasty (CE 960-1280), Dharma transmission was routinely given to senior monastic officers, presumably so that their way to an abbacy would not be blocked. _ftn29  Clearly, enlightenment was not always regarded as the essential criteria for Dharma transmission. Manzan Dohaku (CE1636-1714), a Soto reformer, propagated the view that Dharma transmission was dependent on personal initiation between a Master and disciple rather than on the disciple's enlightenment. He maintained this view in the face of strong opposition, citing as authority the towering figure of Japanese Zen, Dogen (CE 1200-1253). _ftn30  This became and continues to this day to be the official Soto Zen view.
For a contemporary example of the functional role of Dharma transmission within the Zen institution, as well as a lesson in institutional history, let us look at the present-day Soto sect in Japan. This sect strives to match the institutional structures of Dogen's time when every Soto temple had to have an abbot and every abbot had to have Dharma transmission.
In 1984 there were 14,718 Soto Zen temples in Japan and 15,528 Soto priests. Since every abbot has to be a priest, it follows that almost every Soto priest (95%) has Dharma transmission. It should be noted that a majority of these priests would spend less than three years in a monastery. Many will have as little as one year or even six months of training. Significantly, while there is much written in Soto texts on the ritual of Dharma transmission, there is almost nothing on the qualifications for it. _ftn31 
The vast majority of today's Japanese Soto Zen priests are themselves the sons, typically the eldest sons, of temple priests who take over their father's temple more or less as a 'family business.' In the event there are only daughters in the family, an 'arranged marriage' will be made between one of the daughters and a young priest who has no other prospect for acquiring his own temple. The main purpose of all of these arrangements is to ensure that the retired abbot and his wife will have a place to live after their retirement. Dharma transmission is now little more than a formality. _ftn32 
For an example of transmission between the living and the dead from modern times, Yasutani- roshi, one of the most influential Zen teachers in the West,felt that he had a personal spiritual bond with Dogen, and considered himself Dogen's direct Dharma heir by virtue of his possession of the "true Dharma eye." He could thus establish his own authority without reference to the Soto or Rinzai patriarchal lines. _ftn33 
The meaning and value of Dharma transmission and Zen lineage is not a strictly modern day concern. At the end of the Ming dynasty (CE 1368-1644) in China these issues were prominent topics among the leading Ch'an Masters, who expressed a broad range of views. Some Masters believed in giving Dharma transmission to a disciple whose eye was not open, but who was capable of running the monastery. This was referred to as "the seal of the winter melon," i.e. not comparable to a stone seal. Fa-tsang (1573-1635), a famous Lin-chi Master believed that
Dharma was something to be understood and concerned the affirmation of the mind. This Master believed it is possible to be a successor of a Master long dead, whom one has never met, as long as the understanding between living and dead Master matched. He did not think it necessary to have a lineage certificate to be considered a Ch'an Master. His Dharma brother, Tung-rung (1592-1660), thought just the opposite, that it was necessary to meet your living Master and to have a lineage certificate.
Similarly in the Tsao-tung sect there was a range of views. One fairly common view was that enlightenment is in one's mind, there is no reason to seek affirmation from another if you are free from doubts. One master of this sect, Wui-yi Yuan-lai (1575-1630), believed that the essence of the Ch'an sect was that there had to be a matching of minds, not the formal transmission of the sect. He believed all the Ch'an sect's lineages had been broken, their lines terminated, but that all five of the original
Ch'an sects could still be thought as present so long as some practitioner has the right understanding matching exactly the earlier understanding of that sect.
This Master was also against giving Dharma transmission to maintain the institutional lineage. He described this as , "adding water to dilute the milk." Hence, to this Master, it was preferable to have a person with real insight with no Dharma transmission than to have a person with a certificate not based on insight. With a person with real insight but no Dharma transmission, only the sect stops, the path remains true and no harm is done to the Dharma. With Dharma transmission not based on realizing the mind, the school continues but reality is false, deceiving one's mind, deceiving the Buddha, deceiving the world. In this case, you will have the blind leading the blind, all will jump into the great fire. It was mentioned that both the Lin-chi and Tsao-tung lineages were broken. _ftn34  Notably, of the four great Masters _ftn35  of the late Ming era, none belonged to either the Lin-chi or the Tsao-tung sect and three of the four did not have formal lineage certificates.
Not surprisingly, given the implications of the convention of Dharma transmission, rather idealized views of the person receiving it, and of the role itself, prevail among contemporary American Zen students. Most students will understand the term Dharma transmission as a sort of USDA seal of approval guaranteeing that the Master/ roshi is fully enlightened, and that his or her every gesture therefore manifests the Absolute. This attitude is well illustrated by one of the responses to my questionnaire: "a Zen Master is a person who has been certifiedas existing in fully awakened mind..."
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/7/2010, 7:58 pm|| |
Part III:Zen Lineage
The third element of the conceptual triad of terms supporting institutional authority is "Zen lineage." In Master Sheng-yen's introduction to a recent book, Subtle Wisdom ,
he states that his purpose is to describe the background and development of Ch'an
for both new readers and for those with little or erroneous information. He then informs us that ,
" Since the time of the Buddha
, masters have given 'transmission' of their wisdom to their disciples when they demonstrated experience and understanding of the Dharma, the teachings of the Buddha. As a result of this form of recognition, lineages have developed..." _ftn36  Clearly implied in this is the idea that the Ch'an
lineage goes back to the Buddha.
Though he doesn't say that it is an unbroken lineage ,
it is implied in the writing, as the Ch'an
tradition is still thriving and it is passed along from Master to disciple. What is carefully omitted by the author who knows well otherwise, is that there is no such thing
as an unbroken Ch'an
lineage going back to the Buddha and that the lineage that is upheld is not based on deep spiritual attainment.
The notion that Ch'an
/Zen is an unbroken lineage going back to the Buddha is repeated in one Zen context after another. The above mentioning of the Zen transmission/ lineage myth by Master Sheng-yen is only a recent repetition of the myth that the Zen sect has propagated and repeated since the sects beginning in China during the Tang dynasty. In the responses to my questionnaire, it was repeated by at least three respondents who I know are "transmitted" teachers of American Zen groups.
The lineage paradigm, along with the idea of various "patriarchs" standing out among a line's ancestors did not occur by chance. It is well known the Chinese culture places great importance on ancestor worship and patriarchal genealogy. Essentially, Ch'an
replaced the birth family line central to the social structure of traditional Chinese society with a "spiritual" family line descending from the Buddha, i.e. Ch'an
lineage. This is not to say that the lineage structure of Ch'an
is intrinsically Chinese or a creation exclusively of the Chinese imagination. The Kashmiri Masters who established the foundation of the meditation tradition in China brought "the nucleus of the transmission theory whereby the true teachings of Buddhism are handed down from Sakyamuni Buddha through a succession of patriarchs," into China. _ftn37  This convention fit in well with the existing Confucian order, helping to facilitate the acceptance of what was in fact an alien religion. Alan Cole has written:
Since the opening of the Dun Huang caves at the beginning of this century, we know that Chan lineage texts in the mid-and late-Tang were quite at odds with one another in their varied claims to own enlightenment--lineages harking back to Bodhidharma looked quite different, depending on who was writing them. On the whole, these lineage texts represent a new form of disputation which works as follows, 'I am right and you are wrong because I stand in a singularly perfect lineage of truth and you don't.' The structure of this polemic ought to be provocative simply at face value. How did this happen to Buddhism? Why did it get locked into a Confucian model of patrilineal inheritance...?" _ftn38 
As we have seen above though, Ch'an
/Zen attempts to legitimate itself through the idea of an unquestionable lineage and transmission going back to the mythologized Shakyamuni Buddha. This myth is a humanly constructed form that is necessarily open to human interpretation. By legitimation I mean socially objectified "knowledge" that serves to explain the social order. Put differently, legitimations are answers to any questions about the "why" of institutional arrangements. All legitimation maintains socially defined reality.
At times a given legitimation may seem above question and the whole idea of human construction and interpretation may be hidden or lost. But at other times, for whatever historical reasons, the contingencies of human situations break through this covering and show how based in human interpretation and understanding the seeming absoluteness of the construction really is.
Berger writes: "All socially constructed worlds are inherently precarious. Supported by human activity ,
they are constantly threatened by the human facts of self-interest and stupidity." _ftn39 
Zen appears trapped by its own rhetoric into idealizing key terms such as Master/ roshi
, Dharma transmission, and Zen lineage. It has divorced its own claims to authenticity from the sutras or any other canonical texts and based its legitimation on lineage. Inherent to this model is the corollary idea of Dharma transmission from enlightened Master to enlightened Master going all the way back to the Buddha. The Buddha represents ontologically, the nature of the universe as well as the epitome of human attainment. It is as necessary today to maintain the myth of unbroken lineage based on mind-to-mind transmission, as it was necessary for the Sung dynasty monks who created the myth and fought to have it accepted as historical fact. Otherwise, there is no way to maintain Ch'an's
claim to represent the mind of the Buddha. It then becomes important to stress the ancestral connections, through mind-to-mind transmission, whether real or fabricated. The level of praise and sanctity attained in the human realm by the Ch'an
patriarchs and succeeding teachers is a matter of concern to the living members of the Ch'an
lineage, i.e. the living Masters and roshis
. It is the prestige of the mythological lineage that affords the living teachers their privileged position in the Buddhist monastic tradition and the Buddhist world at large. _ftn40 
Though the three terms Master/ roshi
, Dharma transmission, and Ch'an
/Zen lineage may be looked at separately, in terms of authority in Zen, they are intertwined and almost function as a unit. This convention of transmission within a lineage requires that that which is transmitted be totally and authentically the mind of the Buddha. Importantly, there can be no partial transmission. Hence one is a Master or one is not a Master.
There is no intermediate or equivocal state; no one is recognized as being " kind of a Master" or " almost a Master." If one is a Master, then one has perfectly realized the mind of the Buddha, and thus functions from the perspective of the absolute, a viewpoint beyond the understanding of the ordinary sentient being. In this sense, the Master stands in for the sacred, the mysterious living manifestation of true nature, Buddha Mind. Berger states the more general case thus, "Religion legitimates so effectively because it relates the precarious reality constructions of empirical society with ultimate reality.
The tenuous realities of the social world are grounded in the sacred realissimum
, that is, by locating them within a sacred and cosmic frame of reference, which by definition is beyond the contingencies of human meanings and human activity. The historical constructions of human activity are viewed from a vantage point that, in its own self-definition, transcends both history and man." _ftn41 
Hence, according to the rhetoric of Zen, every act of the Master is a manifestation of the living truth of Zen, every activity is a teaching if only the student can grasp it. Anything that seems wrong or problematic or contradictory is due to the student's lack of insight into the absolute, or the Buddha Mind, from which all the Master's insights and actions arise.
This model leads necessarily to an idealization of the Master/ roshi
. As the embodiment of the Buddha's enlightened Mind, the Master is totally beyond all our comprehension and hence exempt from our understanding and all judgments. It is no wonder that much of the behavior one sees around American Zen Centers might appear cultish to the uninitiated. Koans
One of the distinctive features of Zen that has caught the attention of Americans is the Zen koan
. As we shall see below, the koan
is used in many ways and serves a number of functions. As many people know, a koan
is a story or more correctly an encounter dialogue between a Master and a disciple or another person or persons. Koans
are used in a form of Zen meditation known as koan
meditation (Ch. k'an hua Ch'an
, J. kanna
Zen), or more popularly as koan
study. In Japan, koan
study has, over the years become formalized within each teaching line; each line has a selected course of koan
s to "go through," accepted answers to go with the given cases, and a standardized method of secretly guiding students through the curriculum of koan
s and answers. _ftn42  The contents of a given course within a line are a guarded secret. These dialogues are most often totally perplexing to the uninitiated. Koans
are not historical accounts of actual events although East Asian Buddhists, as well as many, if not most practitioners today in the West believe that they are.
Rather they are literary re-creations of how the enlightened masters of the past might have spoken and acted. The popularity of the koan
texts eventually informed the actual oral practice. _ftn43  That is, they came to serve as models for the rhetorical and procedural forms of public discourse within Zen institutions. If the idea of the koan
stories as literary inventions implies too much calculation or artifice on the part of the compilers, another way to view them might be as the folk tales of the Zen tradition. _ftn44 
Though Americans may think they are following some ancient, orthodox form of Chinese, Korean, or Japanese Zen koan
study, this hardly is the case, for no such form exists. There is no single way of using the koans
; it is not known exactly how the koan
s were used in Sung and later China. One Korean teacher popular in the United States has constructed a koan
course that seems to mirror the view that Americans have come to expect, which is the method of the modern Rinzai school of Japan, though that is not the form that is employed in Korea. This truncated version of the Rinzai curriculum model would lead the student to believe that there is little or no intellectual content to koan
study in contemporary Japan, however G. Victor Sogen Hori, a Canadian scholar who spent roughly fifteen years in monasteries in Japan doing koan
study paints a very different picture. According to him there was considerable time spent in writing talks on the koans
to be presented to and graded by the roshi
. Much effort was made to become familiar with the book of capping phrases _ftn45  so that this large collection of phrases was essentially memorized. Finally, for those capable, writing matching poems in Chinese for the various koans
was required. _ftn46 
Like almost all other aspects of Zen, the koans
and the enlightenment that is hopefully to follow from their study, are presented to Americans in an extremely idealized fashion. The qualities presented in the idealized descriptions contained in koan
anecdotes are quite naturally transposed to the living Master or roshi
, since the Zen rhetoric presents the people in these positions as having completely mastered the koans
An example of this idealized view is seen in the following quote of Yasutani- roshi
in his commentary on the Mu koan,
Once you burst into enlightenment you will astound the heavens and shake the earth. As though having captured the great sword of General Kuan [a great general invincible in combat], you will be able to slay the Buddha should you meet him [and he obstruct you] and dispatch all patriarchs you encounter [should they hinder you]. Facing life and death, you are utterly free; in the Six Realms of Existence and the Four Modes of Birth you move about in a samadhi of innocent delight. _ftn47 
One could think from the description above, that the roshi
only moves about in the " samadhi
of innocent delight." However, this is how the same enlightened roshi
manifested his wisdom when addressing the social and political conditions of modern Japan. The quote that follows are words written for a strictly Japanese audience by Yasutani, shortly before his death in 1972. After calling Japan's labor movement and unions traitors, he goes on to say, "The universities we presently have must be smashed one and all. If that can't be done under the present constitution, then it should be declared null and void just as soon as possible, for it is an un-Japanese constitution ruining the nation, a sham constitution born as the bastard child of the allied occupation forces." _ftn48  This type of view was a consistent feature of Yasutani's discourses in the social and political arena, at the least covering the last 40 years of his life. Koans
are used mainly in two ways. In the groups associated with the Soto tradition of Japanese Zen ,
they are used in formal talks either as the main theme of the lecture or as pedagogical devices to bring out some point or to act as pointers. In the groups associated with the Rinzai or Sanbokyodan traditions of Japanese Zen as well as in some groups within the Chinese or Korean traditions, the koans
are also used in these ways, but also and most importantly, they are used as the topic or subject of the student's meditation. Private meetings with the teacher (J. sanzen
) are part of the process when the koans
are used in this last fashion.
In the schools of Zen where the koan
has preeminence as the focus of meditation practice, the koan
has the added function of empowering the teacher and reinforcing the authority of an institutional hierarchy founded in part on what is a largely literary invention. The teacher, having ostensibly mastered the koan
, is a living representative of the enlightened mind to which the koan
points. The teacher judges the student's insight and decides whether the response is complete or deep enough to attain confirmation or approval and to move to the next case in the curriculum. In spite of popular rhetoric to the contrary, though one may "move on" to the next case, this "moving on" in no way means that the student has seen deeply into the present case at all. There is a certain "moving along" that takes place, which is not openly discussed or written about. That is, the student is kept progressing through the course of koan
s though there may be little insight or realization into many of the koan
The private meetings between teacher and student take place in a stylized form: incense burns in the hushed atmosphere and privacy of the interview room, the student bows on entering and leaving the room, and prostrates to the floor before coming to sit in front of the waiting seated teacher. The teacher controls the interview; the teacher decides whether to encourage lightly or forcefully, to give a pointer or to just dismiss, to scold or to encourage, to tell a personal anecdote or to be cold, and terminates the interview at will with the ring of a bell. Finally, the teacher decides when the student should "move on" to another case or, more importantly, when someone's insight is a genuine Zen experience or not. _ftn49 
It is understood among practitioners, that this is the real
Zen, where the real
training goes on in secret. The student is not to discuss anything that goes on in sanzen with anyone else. In this atmosphere and context it is easy to see how the student makes a connection between the present day teacher and the great Masters of the past whose words and gestures are examined in the koans.
As I have hopefully shown, the rhetoric of Zen institutions recognizes the present day teacher awaiting the student in the hushed interview room as the living descendant of our Chinese ancestors, the great Masters of the koan
. The discourse maintains that through mind-to-mind transmission and unbroken Zen lineage, there exists a direct connection between the living teacher and the Sixth Patriarch and Bodhidharma, in fact, to the whole line of patriarchs and ultimately to the Buddha himself.
This notion of direct connection is stated in the Zen idiom as " eyebrow to eyebrow," implying great intimacy, that is, hearing with the same ears, seeing with the same eyes. _ftn50  Thus, through his participation in an exchange intimately linked through form and symbol to the activities of enlightened Masters the student reenacts the actual case of the koan
, and in a sense enters a timeless realm of sacred space. Throughout all of the private interview, the Master/ roshi
introduces the case, directs the line of discussion or enquiry, will introduce a special language and at times a physical way of responding or may tell a private story. But always the teacher is the final and sole arbiter of correct insight or understanding, that is"of going through" or "of passing through " the koan
. What this " passing through" actually means varies widely from teacher to teacher and from case to case. Even among towering figures of the Zen tradition we find great disagreement as to what "attainment" means. For instance, Dogen, the founder of Soto Zen in Japan criticized Ta-hui (CE 1088-1163) a contemporary of Dogen's own teacher, and perhaps the greatest exponent of koan
Zen and a towering figure of Ch'an
in China, as having no insight, accusing him in essence of being a fraud.
During a seven-day retreat the private meetings between the student and the Master/ roshi
are repeated many times a day, at other times maybe once or several times a week. But it is always done with the understanding that this is the "real " teaching and that one is confronting the essence of Zen. Not of little importance, it is here that someone will advance in the given group, be recognized as a good or favored student to be groomed for a teaching role and perhaps entry into the Buddha family through the act of Dharma transmission.
Berger writes, "Religion legitimates so effectively because it relates the precarious reality constructions of empirical society with ultimate reality." _ftn51  Here in the sanzen
room, in private, among bows, bells, and incense, through the medium of the koan
, the student confronts the Zen understanding of reality, the whole of the Zen tradition or of our "Zen ancestors" as one group states it.
The student confronts the Buddha nature or Buddha Mind as manifest in the everyday world in the role of the Master who sits silently waiting for the student to come and present his/her own Buddha nature. This is done in an environment where the Master/ roshi
is the manifestation of the absolute, the stand-in for the Buddha.
The Master invites, cajoles, encourages the student to join in, to see, to take part in this sacralizing of the everyday world through the koan
and the manifest Buddha and ancestors. The teacher sits in front of the student, confronting the student, to whom the student fully prostrates and wholeheartedly presents himself.
The orchestration of the encounter operates on at least two levels of idealization. One is tacit and textual, in the use of literary wisdom stories, whose inner esoteric meaning the teacher has supposedly mastered, and that present an idealized paradigm of the Master/disciple relationship. The other, more explicit and gestural, is enacted in the ritualized exchange of bows, the care taken in the physical arrangement of the room, the learning of a new language, a way of expressing ideas not easily grasped by the uninitiated, and the training in responding spontaneously and iconoclastically, that is, in actions almost formally prescribed. The ultimate result of this idealization of the teacher and the institution he/she represents is the legitimation of the institutional hierarchy. Through these highly ritualized acts and, to a certain extent, the ritualized responses to the koan
s themselves, the authority of the Master/ roshi
is embodied and given significance. The student participates in a ritual that embodies the living Master as the equal of the Buddha and the line of patriarchs. At the same time the student submits to his/her own position as an ordinary human being, with desires for progress, attainment, and recognition.
Despite the fact that all of the elements of the interview are monastic conventions, reflecting the institutional structure more than some inherent quality of enlightenment, the student may have the impression that in fact he/she is participating in an event located in a timeless and sacred space. This whole scenario is entirely constructed by people, yet the student is made to believe that this is the only way or is the way it has always been done since the beginning or earliest times of Zen. As Berger describes it, the intent of the ritual is to "let people forget that this order was established by men and continues to be dependent on the consent of men. Let them believe that, in acting out the institutional programs that have been imposed upon them, they are but realizing the deepest aspirations of their own being and putting themselves in harmony with the fundamental order of the universe." _ftn52 
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/7/2010, 8:15 pm|| |
Part IV:The Alienation of the Master/ roshi
At this point, I would like to look at the person of the Master/ roshi
and examine some of the effects on both the teacher and the student of assuming a mostly idealized role for the teacher. I am going to develop the thesis, following Berger's model, that the Master is "alienated," using the word "alienated" in a precise technical sense. _ftn53 
Berger describes the embodiment of institutional principles as a two way process, "The institutional order is real only insofar as it is realized in performed roles and that, on the other hand, roles are representative of an institutional order that defines their character and from which they derive their objective sense." _ftn54 
Clearly, all socially constructed worlds change because they are historical products of human activity. Looking at the intricacies of the conceptual make up by which any particular world is maintained, one may forget that, " Reality is socially defined. But the definitions are always embodied, that is, concrete individuals and groups of individuals serve as definers of reality.
" _ftn55 
In Zen, the idealized role of Master/ roshi
is the embodiment of all that Zen stands for. The Master, through words and gestures, not only defines reality, but serves also to set the tone and coloring of how Zen is to be manifest in life.
People take part in the Zen institution's activities and accept its beliefs mainly for two reasons: they are both looking for meaning in their own lives and they are looking for a personal transformation that will incorporate this meaning into their lives. It is necessary for people to believe that personal transformation is possible. The Zen Master/ roshi
is that living embodiment of personal transformation. Zen promotes a transformation that is so complete that as the Zen institutions define it, it is beyond human understanding and judgment, which also implies great freedom and power; an ideal well worth struggling for.
However, the idealizations are too great to actually fulfill the institutional needs for an embodied Master, with a real human. Yet a flesh and blood person must fill the role. Often, a person who is very far from the ideal they supposedly embody necessarily fills the role. In fact, there are very few people who can approach the standard set in the idealization of the Zen Master. The teacher attempts to act the part and their students accept the authority and specialness as they have been instructed through varied means. But a large institution such as Zen requires many teachers, so that most of its teachers do not fully embody the practice nor can they be a living example of the transformation promised. In a heterogeneous and highly individualistic society with few structural social controls such as ours, the idealization of the Master appears to me to be a prescription for problems.
Society, through the processes of externalization, objectification, and internalization is the product of collective human activity. Through these three processes, society confronts the individual as an external, subjectively opaque, and pre-emptive facticity. Externalization and objectification imply the production of a real social world, external to the individuals inhabiting it; internalization implies that the same social world will have the status of reality within the consciousness of these individuals.
This is an ongoing process as each individual necessarily ventures into the world. Through these three processes the individual participates and cooperates in the reality of social construction. This same social world retains its character of objectivity as it is internalized in consciousness. The fundamental persuasive power of society is not in its means of social control, but in its power to impose itself as reality.
There are two points of importance here. First, that socialization is always partial and that internalization sets one part of consciousness against the rest of consciousness. Second, internalization entails self-objectification: a part of the self becomes objectified, not just to others, but to itself. A "social self" is created, which is and remains in a state of uneasy accommodation with the non-social self-consciousness upon which it has been imposed.
For instance, one's socialized self and place in society may be as a nine to five, hard working, middle class family man, yet this same person may see himself as a Don Juan. This could lead to all manner of problems for this person with his wife and children. However, the role of middle class family man becomes an objective "presence," carrying a powerful sense of reality within the consciousness of the individual. Since the socializing process is never perfect, man produces "otherness" both outside and inside himself as a result of life in society. The possibility then arises that not only does the social world seem strange to the individual but that he becomes strange to himself in certain aspects of his socialized self. One may have the objectively socialized role of Zen Master, a role that carries an institutional representation of extremely high ideals, while the non-socialized self upon which the role has been imposed still hungers after fame, the bodies of attractive young students, a larger group of followers, a larger temple and more land, more money, or any number of other objects of desire. In a situation such as this one part of consciousness is left in an uneasy relation with another part.
It should be noted that the division or split in one's consciousness that sets a social self in an uneasy accommodation with the non-social self consciousness is necessary, to one degree or another, as a quality of being a social being. In other words, it is part of being human. However, as Berger underlines below, one may proceed along different paths,
There are, however, two ways in which this estrangement may proceed - one, in which the strangeness of world and self can be reappropriated by the "recollection" that both the world and self are products of one's own activity- the other, in which such reappropriation is no longer possible, and in which social world and socialized self confront the individual as inexorable facticities analogous to the facticities of nature. This latter process may be called alienation. Put differently, alienation is the process whereby the dialectical relationship between the individual and his world is lost." _ftn56 
Alienation is a false consciousness in that it is forgotten that this social world was and continues to be co-produced by the individual as an active participant in the collective enterprise of social life.
It is important to understand that alienation does not necessarily weaken or disempower the alienated individual. In fact, the opposite may be the case -- it may become a source of great power as it removes the doubts and uncertainties that may cause problems and hesitancy in a non-alienated person. For the alienated individual, "The social world ceases to be an open arena in which the individual expands his being in meaningful activity, becomes instead a closed aggregate of reifications divorced from present or future activity." _ftn57 
Importantly, perceiving the social cultural world in alienated terms serves to maintain its structures that give meaningful order to experience, with particular efficacy, precisely because it immunizes against the innumerable contingencies of the human enterprise of world building. In the case we are examining here, namely that of the Zen Master in America, we have seen a number of cases where no matter how poorly the Master has performed, he/she seems able, almost as if blinded to his/her own shortcomings, to continue to act and maintain his/her position of Master.
There is an apparent strength, that allows the Master to maintain his/her position, almost totally divorced from his/her activity, despite the rhetoric of Zen that places so high a value on the normal activities of daily life and that maintains that every act of the Master comes from the Absolute. The alienation in these cases immunizes against the innumerable contingencies and setbacks of everyday life.
In Zen ,
the institution is "embodied" or "realized" in the performed role of the Master or roshi
. A role that is almost necessarily idealized (with rare exceptions) through the mechanisms of Dharma transmission, Zen lineage, koans
, and ritual. The students internalizing the Zen rhetoric, expect the real teacher to be an ideal teacher, so they look forward to having such an ideal teacher lead and instruct them. _ftn58  These idealizations are repeated in one form or another throughout the Ch'an
In one of the earliest of Ch'an
the Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch
Hong-ren, the fifth Patriarch, tells his successor Hui-neng, the sixth and last Patriarch, "If you are able to awaken another's mind, he will be no different from me." What is implied here is that each Master in the line of transmission is equal to evfery other, and that the teaching each new Master gives is identical to that given by all the masters of the past. Essentially, at least as far as understanding is concerned, one teacher is the same as all the others, _ftn59  each one being the same as the Buddha.
To rise in Zen institutions, as in any institution, one must be well socialized in its ways and not question the institutional order and its roles. Since the role of Master is connected to the historical and semi-mythological Buddha through the mechanisms of Dharma transmission and Zen lineage, the Master's self identification in his/her role is further enhanced and deepened as is her/his sense of ultimate rightness. It is my contention that the idealizations associated with this position lead the Master or roshi to have an alienated view of the world.
The person inhabiting the role of Master becomes, through the process of internalization of the privileges and qualities embodied in her/his role, something other than herself/himself.
The role as defined by the Zen institutions, as we have seen describes a person actualizing perfect freedom, free of fixed repetitive patterns, not self centered, filled with simplicity, buoyancy, humility, perspicacity, and compassion, or according to another description capable of performing miracles and still another description has the Master always maintaining a pure mind. This is truly a stupendous person, very rare indeed.
However, the internalization of the role is never complete, and some part of the person remains that has all the normal shortcomings and the concomitant doubts, desires and uncertainties that comprise all fallible people. By saying that the Master/ roshi
becomes something other than herself/himself, I mean that the role and its imputed qualities are foreign to, or in conflict with her/his activities and thoughts manifest in her/his daily life, to her/his non-socialized self upon which the role Master has been placed. For the alienated person, in this case the Zen Master, there is an "otherness" (the role of Zen Master) produced within herself/himself that is formed by the social world and is in addition, strange to herself/himself. It is strange to herself/himself because the process of socialization is never perfect. There remains an uneasy accommodation with the non-socialized self-consciousness and its varied desires."
Alienation is an overextension of the process of objectivation, whereby the human ("living") objectivity of the social world is transformed into the non-human ("dead") objectivity of nature... In this loss of the societal dialectic, activity itself comes to appear as something other--namely, as process, destiny or fate," _ftn60  or in Buddhist terminology, as karma or causes-and-conditions. In this case, the students too become reified to the Master.
Though not necessarily with sinister intent, the students become objects to be used and insidiously manipulated for the Master's ends, whatever they may be. It is insidious because the Master's actions and motives as defined by the institutional role are "good," based in the absolute, coming from a pure mind, serving to spread the Dharma, and in order to help all sentient beings while in reality they are serving his/her own human desires. Simultaneously, critical thinking and questioning are explicitly denigrated with the worst of Zen epithets, "ego-centered activity."
Once this sort of alienated, near delusional world-view
has been largely accepted, the door has been opened to all manner of potential abuses on the part of the person occupying the role of Master/ roshi
. A split has occurred between the person in power and the role they inhabit, between their personal responsibilities and their title.
The Master, who was originally looked to as a role model, a more complete or developed human than the students, now appears to a viewer who has seen through the process of idealization and its resultant alienation, as a diminished person. The living person is gone, replaced by a reified role player. The normal balancing of different roles and positions, along with the accompanying internal dialectic, that one must assume in the course of dynamic normal life is now replaced mostly by one role, the role of Master. Unfortunately, in Zen this is often masked behind a rhetoric of non-ego and emptiness wherein the teacher's alienation only deepens. At this point, the Zen Center comes to resemble theater, where all the participants gladly play their roles, each for his/her own reasons. The students mostly become reified to themselves as students. A few students working their way up the hierarchy who aspire to become teachers, may avoid for the time being the reification of their position as student, which they view as is in transition.
A person holding the view of the Master being alienated would predict, that however the Master acts in the ordinary world, the Master would still see himself as a Master and continue to act in that role. The Master is acting in a role that is idealized and superimposed onto a self that is ordinary with all regular human foibles.
The students, being socialized into Zen rhetoric and its legitimating mechanisms see the Master as approaching the ideal, as they have been indoctrinated to do. The members of the Zen group in North America mentioned earlier in this paper, which was surprised that Zen Master could display human foibles, is just one of many examples that can be given of individuals who accept the Zen rhetoric and the idealized view of the Master. Because no socialization is complete there is a part of the Master that is aware of the falsity of his/her words, activities, and role-playing.
That side of the Master's consciousness is aware of the ordinariness that he/she shares with the rank-and-file of the Center. However, the Master sees his/her flock accepting their activities through the lens of the idealized role. While the Master is aware of the "ordinary" side of his/her own consciousness, he/she sees the students responding to him/her in his/her idealized role. As is often the case in this type of encounter, the tendency exists to then see the students as dupes, "rubes," or people easy to fool. That is, the alienated Master views his students with little respect, hence there is an inclination to treat them with disdain and contempt. Berger states,
The gigantic projections of religious consciousness, whatever else they may be, constitute the historically most important effort of man to make reality humanly meaningful, at any price... The great paradox of religious alienation is that the very process of dehumanizing the socio-cultural world has its roots in the fundamental wish that reality as a whole might have a meaningful place for man. One may thus say that alienation, too, has been a price paid by the religious consciousness in its quest for a humanly meaningful universe" _ftn61 
The disparity between the Master's lived everyday life with its occasions for error, desires, and doubts and the idealized presentation of the person as Master often repeated in the histories, mondos
, is too great. However, the rhetoric of Zen hinges on the doctrine of Zen lineage as passed on through Dharma transmission and the institutional legitimacy and the authority of the Master/ roshi
is dependent on this model. Put another way, "doctrine and a narration of the origin of that doctrine are completely intertwined, with the historicity of ... events essential to the narration of truth.
Though the transmission moment might be toyed with in later disclaimers that nothing was ultimately transmitted, the historicity of the lineage cannot be disposed of." _ftn62  That is, the content of the transmission is not so important as is the performance, the transmission and the re-creation of the social fact of lineage. However, the latter is ignored by the emphasis on the former. The Soto sect in Japan is just one very prominent example. In modern day America, as was probably most often the case, the maintenance of institutional stability and continuity is of primary importance.
The family of supposed Buddhas is continued into the next generation, the institution is perpetuated, and of course some "ordinary" members of the community are necessarily expendable. In this respect, Zen is no different from other major religious institutions.
There is a clearly visible power dynamic at the core of the Zen student-teacher relationship. According to sociologist David Bell, "Power implies the existence of a valued object that a) can be manipulated (i.e., increased or diminished by one actor with respect to another); b) is valued by the respondent; c) is in relatively short supply; d) is divisible. Any object fulfilling these criteria can become the basis of a power relationship." _ftn63 
Using the above criteria, insight and understanding of koan
s and Buddha Dharma can function as the basis of a power relationship between student and the Zen Master. The struggle occurs in this area over at least two issues, the student wanting to be recognized for having realized the truth of Zen, and over the student being authorized to be a teacher in his/her own right.
An example of this dynamic can be seen in an event that took place some years ago in a Zen that group was experiencing tension. A student went to the teacher and said that there was dissatisfaction and tension in the group. The teacher replied that the problem was that he was not passing people so easily with their koans
. Not passing koans
means that students were not being recognized for attaining insight, for being enlightened, and also, for those moving along in the koan
curriculum, it means being held back from completing the koan
course and hence, from becoming teachers themselves. That is, their attaining Dharma transmission and entry into an official Zen lineage was being blocked. What "not passing the people so easily" says about koan
study and what "passing a koan
" actually means, will not be considered here. Unfortunately, the actual source of the dissatisfaction and tension was that the teacher, married with a child was secretly involved with two of his female students, neither of who was his wife.
In order to maintain the appearance of spiritual authority, the person chosen to fill the role of Master/ roshi
is almost forced by the idealizations attributed to the role by the Zen institution to live in a state of false consciousness, that is, to live a lie. At the same time there is a determination among the students to elevate and idealize the Master as an exemplar of the teaching and principles enshrined in the lineage's tradition.
People want an outstanding teacher, no one wants an average or mediocre one. The rhetoric of Zen feeds into the student's desire to have an outstanding teacher as a role model, stating that the teacher is by definition outstanding, or as three of the teachers quoted at the beginning of this paper have informed us, "beyond your understanding," capable of performing miracles and possessed of a quality of life that is extraordinary. These sorts of words feed the student with a collection of hints and teasers to stimulate their fantasies of purity and outstanding spiritual attainment.
This pressure of the students is a form of complicity with the institution in accepting the title Master/ roshi
; they commit themselves to the descriptions of the position established within the tradition, and will attribute those qualities to whoever holds the title. In fact, the qualities imputed to the role of Master, may be all the student will see. There is a collusion between the Master and the student, a symbiotic relationship in that it plays into the comforting position for the student in having a sense of certainty in an idealized role model; while at the same time the Master is elevated to an idealized authority figure that in extreme cases almost becomes cultic, as one can observe around certain Zen centers.
Those coming to Zen are to some large degree attracted by the sense, meaning, or ordering that it gives to the experience of life. As we have seen, this structure and order in Zen, is embodied in the Zen teacher. The teacher's certainty about his role, largely the result of alienation, asserts hierarchy.
The teacher, seemingly immunized from normal human doubts, shortcomings and errors, stands high above the students with their sense of precariousness, self-questioning, and doubt. In a sense, the student cooperates with the teacher's alienation in order to maintain the meaning that Zen gives to life, that the teacher "embodies" and that the student craves, almost with the force of an instinct. _ftn64 
The very hierarchy implied by the alienation of the teacher itself imposes a structure that is a second level ordering of sorts. One now has the Zen institution, a system with rituals and hierarchy to live in, the Master/ roshi
seen as an idealized figure at the head, monks and nuns and older students below and so on. This structure offers a channel for the students' aspirations for progress, and satisfies the desire for an orderly and sensible world. One can settle into in a well-understood hierarchy. Each person finds his/her place, either as a new student or some level of wiser, older student or to become ordained, all with their attendant privileges and status. One becomes part of an initiated in-group with a special language, a special way of talking, special ritual behavior, and an insight into or understanding of the world beyond the rest of society's comprehension.
The hierarchy related to the symbiotic relationship between the authority of the Master and the members of the Zen group is enhanced in many other ways. The wearing of special robes during ceremonies as well as the special place and bows reserved for the Master during services, emblematic accouterments such as the use of special bells, wands of office, tools, accents, and furnishings all serve to locate the source of authority. _ftn65 
In some Zen centers, there is much pomp and ceremony preceding and surrounding the talks given by the Master. In other places the representation of authority and hierarchy may take the form of stylized behavior such as standing or holding ones hands in a specific fashion or of talking and responding in prescribed or stylized ways. Elsewhere, the authority may be displayed in the aloofness or distance that the Master keeps from the rank and file. At still other places hierarchy may be shown in the ceremonial activities reserved for the Master and the ordained. By whatever means, authority and hierarchy are located, established, and enhanced.
Zen in America has been presented in an extremely simplistic manner, so that one is led to believe that the terminology of Zen is "pure," that is, that it has no sociopolitical implications. One is led to think that Zen and hence the terminology that defines it, in the words of D. T. Suzuki, "stands aloof from the scene of worldly sordidness and restlessness." _ftn66 
Rinzai Zen priest Ichikawa Hakugen points out that the concepts we so identify with Zen were all factors that facilitated Zen to be united with Japanese militarism and authoritarianism--terms such as, harmony, nonresistance, tolerance, Dogen's term "body-and-mind-falling-away," karma
, no self, the concept of debt or gratitude, mutual interdependence of all things, the doctrine of the Middle Way, emphasis on inner peace rather than justice, and finally the characteristic of "just as it is" which can lead to a static, aesthetic perspective, a detached, subjective harmony with things. _ftn67 
These terms, naively viewed seem pure and straightforward, the essence of Zen, yet with more thought and historical perspective we see that they have no meaning whatsoever outside of the culture in which they are embedded, or more precisely, who in that culture is using them and at what time. Berger, in 1966 stated this nicely, "Put a little crudely, it is essential to keep pushing questions about historically available conceptualizations of reality from the abstract 'What?' to the sociologically concrete "Says who?" _ftn68  Summary
In this paper we have looked at how Ch'an
/Zen has been presented to America in a most idealized fashion. Specifically, we have seen how the terms Dharma transmission, Zen lineage, and Master/ roshi
are intertwined to form a seamless web that along with koans
and ritual behavior falsely elevates the Zen teacher, by whatever title he/she may assume, to a position that is paradoxically human, but simultaneously beyond human.
I have shown that it is not necessary for any individual teacher to make claims concerning his/her own enlightenment or level of spiritual attainment because the Zen institutions repeat this claim, in one form or another, for the person sitting in the role of Zen Master. We have seen that these defining Zen terms and most of the elements of Zen's self definition have been accepted uncritically in America and the West in general. In addition, as students are discouraged from resorting to any non-Zen theoretical framework to critically examine Zen institutions, a member who attempts a critical view is thrown back into Zen terminology that only tends to enhance the power of the teacher. In this paper, I have proposed one theoretical framework to view Zen institutions, namely that of the American sociologist, Peter L. Berger. Surely there are others and I hope Zen students seek them out.
Zen makes the claim to be concerned with the absolute, true Mind, seeing ones original nature. Yet, the Zen sects' self definition and institutional structures are essentially based on idealism, falsehood, and deception that serve certain institutional interests and the interests of those holding roles legitimated by the Zen institutions. But one may ask, "At what price?"
The Masters themselves pay a high price. Being elevated by the rhetoric of Zen and by the internalization of the Zen rhetoric by the students to a position far beyond anything that matches their own attainment, they are forced to play a role rather than function as normal humans in teaching positions. This places the teacher in the unenviable position of living a lie or into denying, or at best hedging the rhetoric of the very institution that legitimates his/her role.
This is an untenable situation. All to often the teacher chooses to internalize the social role, setting one side of consciousness against the rest, rather than question that which legitimates and empowers, i.e. the Zen terminology and rhetoric. As internalization entails self objectification, the teacher then objectifies himself as the Master or roshi
, a self-image recall based on an idealized convention, namely, mind-to-mind transmission going back to the semi- mythological historical Buddha, a convention not related to the reality of his/her own life. This self-deception of the Master leads to alienation, the process whereby the dialectical relationship between the world and the individual is lost. _ftn69 
This position often leads to a view of the students as objects to be used, as lesser beings worthy of disdain or contempt.
The students too pay a price. At the very least, any sort of critical thinking being strongly discouraged, the critical faculties of individual students are devalued so that an important aspect of what it means to be human is nullified. Being cut off from critical thinking also places the student in the position of viewing the Zen world only through its own lens. Inherent in this view, are strong elements of hierarchy and authority that are mostly undeserved for reasons already mentioned. This has, to one degree or another, allowed for all sorts of excess and craziness to pass either unnoticed, or understood in ways that preserve the institution, its idealizations, and its hierarchy at all costs.
Another aspect of establishing an unreal hierarchy is the necessary inverse reflection of power, namely the denigrating or making less of the student both by the teacher and the student himself/herself. One sees this in the lack of questioning of the teacher, which if it does occur, is dismissed as egocentric behavior by the teacher as well as by other students properly socialized into Zen rhetoric or in the almost cult like adoration of the teacher, common around Zen centers.
A common phrase heard all too often around Zen centers is, " roshi
says..." This is usually in reply to a question, disagreement, or to someone's resisting an order or questioning some aspect of the how the Center functions. Clearly implied in this " roshi
says," is that whatever roshi
says, is beyond question, simply because roshi
has said it ,
are, by definition, never wrong.
A closing of the mind takes place as the student internalizes the Zen rhetoric and elevates and idealizes the teacher. One does not question problematic statements or situations for fear of being out of place in questioning the authority figure, for fear of being demoted or losing privilege in the organization, or for fear that the whole edifice will crumble; an edifice that one has come to depend upon to make sense of themselves and of the world, the most terrifying position of all.
Social and historical reasons required Ch'an
/ Zen to construct a mythology and rhetoric that is based on idealization and false claims. A re-evaluation is in order if Zen is to adapt to modern Western culture, a culture based on liberal democratic ideas as opposed to the long traditions of hierarchy, obedience, and authoritarianism of the Far Eastern cultures from which Zen institutions and usage grew.
How do we look at Zen in a way that is more in tune with our modern culture, a culture open to critical inquiry, with a view of the individual and his/her leaders grounded in our own cultural setting with its sense of individualism, freedom, and openness, as well as its dilemmas and fears, rather than attempting to function within rigid institutional idealizations and old myths suited to Far Eastern cultures? How do we place Zen squarely in the human realm that deals with human problems of flesh and blood humans, not with cardboard cutouts of projections of fantasy role models?
Can we do this and still maintain a respect for past Zen institutions that have kept the tradition alive? Can we find forms of organization and language that resonate with modern people, that address their concerns and fears and can instill life with meaning and purpose?
Perhaps one place to look is the old Buddhist idea of kalyana-mitra
, that is, the idea of a spiritual friend. In this view, the kalyana-mitra
is not idealized and elevated to a position beyond human and human frailty, but is viewed as someone having more insight, more experience, knowing more, displaying patience and the ability to listen, the merit of learning coupled with good meditative knowledge, a deeper understanding that a fellow practitioner can look to for guidance, advice, and help, as a mentor. One is a kalyana-mitra
by being in relationship with someone else or others. This is a relationship between friends with a common interest, though one person may have more knowledge and experience than the other. The relationship is the responsibility of both friends and both bring something to it.
However, in Zen students are not made to understand their responsibility nor to make judgments or to discriminate. In fact, in Zen we have seen that the student is told he/she cannot understand the teacher, because the teacher functions from a place beyond his/her understanding. The kalyana-mitra
would function in the context of a more experienced fellow traveler, companion on the path without the necessary extreme hierarchy and "otherness" inherent in the idealized view proffered by Zen institutions.
The spiritual friend would not function as an exemplar of Buddhahood but rather to demonstrate qualities lacking in oneself and as a reminder of your own inherent resources.
Another area to examine, mentioned earlier, is to place more emphasis on the allegiance to the community of practitioners, fellow seekers rather than the almost complete dependence and loyalty to a given teacher and institution.
Robert Buswell has pointed out that Korean Zen monks, by not maintaining allegiance to a specific master, Buddhist thought and practice are kept separate from the person of the master. One learns from many teachers, but does not take any one person's version of the Dharma to be definitive. _ftn70 
At least in theory, this is inherently more democratic, and would cultivate a sense of independence, allowing for a more dynamic and open flow of dialogue and ideas.
Finally, I think it necessary to open up to critical examination all of what we call Zen. In this area, the work of scholars can serve as an invaluable asset to the American Zen community-scholars insight into historical precedent and development are at least as valuable as their ability to translate texts.
It is through the work of scholars that we can begin to look at the formation and development of the Zen tradition, viewing it at least partially from within the context of the cultures in which it was formed and developed, but also from the viewpoint of our own culture, our own concerns and conceptualizations. Scholars may also serve as a check on the hagiographies being written today of recently deceased as well as living Masters. These hagiographies, just as in the past, are meant to enhance the prestige and authority of the living, present day Zen Masters/roshis. Unfortunately, at this time scholars are mostly viewed as a threat by the American Zen community, hopefully this will change in the near future.
see also: Richard Baker and the Myth of the Zen Roshi
see also: Coming Down from the Zen Clouds: a critique of the current state of American Zen
_ftnref1  Much thanks to Simeon Gallu for editorial assistance. I welcome any comments from the reader. Please send to . _ftnref2  mondo - a Japanese term meaning question and answer- a dialogue or verbal encounter between a teacher and a student in which the student asks a question that is particularly troubling and the teacher answers attempting to bring out an answer from the student's intuitive mind. Koan (J.), kung-an (Ch.)--originally in China, a public case of law that established a precedent. In Ch'an /Zen, a koan is a dialogue or encounter between a Master and another person(s), usually in what appears to be confusing language and gesture; yet in this manner, it is pointing to some truth of Ch'an. It canbe used as a place of focus in meditation as well as a topic for a teacher's talk. _ftnref3  Shunryu, Suzuki, Zen Mind , Beginners Mind , Weatherhill, 1970, p.19. _ftnref4  Sahn, Master Seung, Dropping Ashes on the Buddha : The Teachings of Zen Master Seung Sahn , Grove Press, 1976, p.99. _ftnref5  satori- a Japanese term translated as enlightenment, Self realization, seeing ones true nature, or opening ones eye. One sees/experiences the emptiness of things and self, though this emptiness is not different from the 10,000 things. This emptiness is alive and one sees the interrelationship of all things. There are deep and shallow experiences of satori. _ftnref6  Victoria, Brian, Zen At War , Weatherhill,1997, p.199, fn. 50, quoting from the Eastern Buddhist, 26/2(1993), p.141 _ftnref7  Stated in a public talk given at his Center. It was later printed in his Center's newsletter, Ch'an Newsletter , No. 38, 1984, pp.1-2. _ftnref8  Aitken, Robert, The Mind of Clover , North Point Press, 1984, p.3. See also, Lori, John Daido, The Heart of Being : Moral and Ethical Teachings of Zen Buddhism , Charles Tuttle and Co., 1996. Paaramitaa has been translated as perfection or transcendence. The six are giving, morality, patience, effort, meditation, and wisdom. The ten precepts have been translated as to refrain from killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, taking recreational drugs, discussing the faults of others, praising oneself, covetousness, indulging in anger, and defaming the Three Treasures (Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha). _ftnref9  Butler, Katy, "Events Are The Teachers," The CoEvolution Quarterly , winter 1983, pp.112-123. To give some sense of scale, in 1982, while the students working at the Center's enterprises were just getting by on minimum wage, Baker spent more than $200,000. Much of this was related to his job as abbot, but he also spent money impulsively on art, furniture, and expensive restaurant meals. Zen Center spent $4,000 for his membership in New York's exclusive Adirondack Club and despite the governing Board's uneasiness, $26,000 for his BMW. _ftnref10  The eight terms were Dharma transmission, mind to mind transmission, Zen master, roshi , Zen lineage, enlightened being/person, monk/nun, and kensho / satori. _ftnref11  The person relating the story had been doing koan study with Carol for a year and a half. He had been involved in Zen for 20 years or so, part of the time with a major Zen group in another part of North America, from whom he attained permission to teach introductory classes. _ftnref12  Lachs, Stuart."Coming Down From the Zen Clouds," 1995, Articles on Buddhism and East Asian Philosophy, www.human.toyogakuen-u.ac.jp/~acmuller/articles/eaprforum.htm _ftnref13  Berger, Peter, L., The Sacred Canopy , Doubleday, 1967. _ftnref14  The Sacred Canopy , pp.7-9. _ftnref15  The Sacred Canopy , p.3. _ftnref16  The Sacred Canopy , p.6-9 _ftnref17  Said to the author privately during a visit to the U.S.A. in 1983. _ftnref18  Public letter from Koun Yamada - roshi 1/16/86. Yamada- roshi was Yasutani - roshi 's heir. He became the leader of the Sanbokyodan School of Zen started by Yasutani - roshi and also gave Dharma transmission to Robert Aitken. Also a letter from Mr. Kapleau to Koun Yamada 2/17/86. _ftnref19  Buswell, Robert E., The Zen Monastic Experience , Princeton University Press, 1992, pp. 204-208. _ftnref20  Masataka Toga, director of the Institute of Zen Studies, Hanazono University, and Dharma successor of the prominent Rinzai roshi , Yamada Mumon, quoted in Josh Baran's complete review of Brian Victoria's Zen At War , on the internet at WWW.darkzen.com . _ftnref21  McRae, John, "Encounter Dialogue and Transformation in Ch'an," in Paths to Liberation , ed. by Robert Buswell and Robert Gimello, University of Hawaii Press, 1992, P.354. _ftnref22  Muller, Charles A., "The Key Operative Concepts in Korean Buddhist Syncretic Philosophy, Interpenetration and Essence- Function in Wonhyo," Chinul, and Kihwa, Bulletin of Toyo Gakuen University , No.3, March 1995, P.2. _ftnref23  Cook, Francis, Hua- yen Buddhism , The Pennsylvania State University Press, p.18. _ftnref24  Watson, Burton, The Zen Teachings of Master Lin-chi , Shambala, 1993, p.13. _ftnref25  Foulk, T.Griffith and Robert H. Sharf, "On the Ritual Use of Ch'an Portraiture in Medieval China," Cahiers D'Extrême Asie, 7, 1993, p. 195. _ftnref26  For an interesting discussion of the rather late (early twelfth century) and even controversial acceptance of this self- defining idea in Ch'an /Zen see Welter, Albert, " Ch'an Slogans and the Creation of Ch'an Ideology, A Special Transmission Outside the Scriptures," a paper presented at the annual meeting of the AAR, November, 1995. _ftnref27  Faure, Bernard, Rhetoric of Immediacy , Princeton University Press, 1991, pp. 221,225; Sheng- yen, Master, Investigation of Chinese Buddhism in the Late Ming Era , translated privately for the author by Ming-yee Wang, Dharma Drum Publications , 1987, pp. 48-53. For a broken and strange type of transmission in the Tsao-tung lineage see Schlutter, Morten, "Silent Illumination, Kung-an Introspection, and the Competition for Lay Patronage in Sung-Dynasty Ch'an" in Buddhism in the Sung, edited by Peter N. Gregory and Daniel Getz, Honolulu: Hawaii University Press, 1999. _ftnref28  . Welch, Holmes, Buddhism in China , 1900 to 1950, Harvard University Press, 1967, p. 315. Welch gives the interesting case of one Chinese monk in the twentieth century who gave Dharma transmission to another Chinese monk then in Burma, "without ever having met him, and indeed, without even finding out whether he would accept the Dharma." _ftnref29  Foulk, T. Griffith " Myth, Ritual, and Monastic Practice," Religion and Society in Tang and Sung China , Ed. Patricia Buckley Ebrey and Peter N. Gregory, University of Hawaii Press, 1993, p.160. _ftnref30  Bodiford, William M., Soto Zen in Medieval Japan , University of Hawaii Press, 1993, p. 215."Zen Dharma transmission between master and disciple could occur whether or not the disciple had realized enlightenment, just so long as the ritual of personal initiation had been performed." For a further discussion of the surprising usages of Dharma transmission see, Bodiford above, p.149, Welch previously cited, The Rhetoric of Immediacy , pp.14, 17, 225. See also "On the Ritual Us of Ch'an Portraiture in Medieval China." _ftnref31  Foulk, T. Griffith, "The Zen Institute in Modern Japan," pp.157-177 , Zen, Tradition and Transition , Kenneth Kraft ed., NY, Grove Press, 1988 _ftnref32  Brian Victoria related this information to me in a private correspondence. _ftnref33  Sharf, Robert, "Sanbokyodan, Zen and the Way of New Religions," Japanese Journal of Religious Studies , Fall 1995, Vol. 22, no. 3-4. _ftnref34  Sheng-yen, Master, Investigation of Chinese Buddhism in the Late Ming Era , Dharma Drum Publications, 1987, pp.5-7, 48-53, translated privately for the author by Ming-yee Wang. For a broken and strange type of transmission in the Tsao-tung lineage see Schlutter, Morten, "Silent Illumination, Kung-an Introspection, and the Competition for Lay Patronage in Sung-Dynasty Ch'an." In Buddhism in the Sung , edited by Peter N. Gregory and Daniel Getz, Honolulu: Hawaii University Press, 1999. _ftnref35  The four Masters were Ou-I (1595-1653), Ta-guen Cheng-Ke (1543-1603), Yun-chi Chu-chung (1535-1615), and Han Shan (1546-1623). Han Shan's commentary on the Diamond Sutra and the Sutra of Complete Enlightenment were translated into English in Luk, Charles, Chan and Zen Teaching, First Series and Third Series respectively, Rider & Co., 1960 and 1962. For some of Han Shan's words on meditation, see Luk, Charles, The Secrets of Chinese Meditation , Weiser, 1979. Also see Ou-I, An Exhortation to be Alert to the Dharma . Trans. Dharma Master Lok To. Ed. Dr. Frank G. French, Bronx, New York: Sutra Translation Committee of The United States and Canada, 1987. _ftnref36  Sheng- yen, Master, Subtle Wisdom , Doubleday, 1999, p. IX. _ftnref37  McCrae, John, "Encounter Dialogue and Transformation in Ch'an " in Paths to Liberation , ed. by Robert Buswell and Robert Gimello, University of Hawaii Press, 1992, p.359. _ftnref38  Cole, Alan, "Fathering Your Father and Other Literary Privileges in the Platform Sutra ," a paper delivered at a seminar at Princeton University under the auspices of Stephan Teiser, December 1998, p. 12, permission to quote granted by the author. _ftnref39  The Sacred Canopy , pp.32-34 _ftnref40  " Myth, Ritual, and Monastic Practice" in Sung Ch'an Buddhism, in Religion and Society in T'ang and Sung China, p.174. _ftnref41  The Sacred Canopy , pp. 32-34. _ftnref42  Soto Zen in Medieval Japan , pp.145-148. _ftnref43  McCrae, John, Encounter Dialogue and Transformation in Ch'an , in Paths To Liberation , Ed. by Robert E. Buswell and Robert M. Gimello, p.340 _ftnref44  The idea of koan s as folk tales was suggested by Robert Aitken, Original Dwelling Place , Counterpoint, 1996, p.103 _ftnref45  capping phrase- jakugo(J)- literally means "attached phrase"- used to show one's understanding of the koan by selecting a verse or phrase from the Zenrin Kushin, Collected Zen Verses - a collection of 4,380 verses all taken from a wide range of Chinese sources. See Hori, G. Victor Sogen, " Koan and Kensho in the Rinzai Zen Curriculum," p.26, an unpublished paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Religion, Nov.21, 1994. Permission to quote granted by the author. _ftnref46  Hori, G. Victor Sogen, " Koan and Kensho in the Rinzai Zen Curriculum," pp.24-29. _ftnref47  The Three Pillars of Zen , pp.76-77. _ftnref48  Zen At War , p.168. _ftnref49  For an interesting discussion of institutional volatility in the Sanbokyodan line of Yasutani and who controls enlightenment, along with nationalist interests, see Sharf, Robert H., "Sanbokyodan: Zen and the Way of the New Religions," Japanese Journal of Religious Studies , Fall, 1995,Vol. 22 /nos.3-4, pp.444-452. _ftnref50  Three Pillars of Zen , p.83. _ftnref51  The Sacred Canopy , p. 32. _ftnref52  Sacred Canopy , P.33 _ftnref53  See The Sacred Canopy , chapter 4, "Religion and Alienation," pp. 81-101. _ftnref54  Berger, Peter L. and Thomas Luckmann. The Social Construction of Reality, Anchor Books, 1996, pp. 78 - 79. _ftnref55  The Social Construction of Reality , p.116 _ftnref56  The Sacred Canopy , p.85. _ftnref57  The Sacred Canopy , p.86. _ftnref58  This idea was suggested by, Mysticism and Kingship in China , Julia Ching, Cambridge University Press, 1997, p. 209. _ftnref59  "Fathering Your Father and Other Literary Privileges in the Platform Sutra," 1998, pp. 24-25. _ftnref60  The Sacred Canopy , pp.85-86. _ftnref61  The Sacred Canopy , pp.100-101. _ftnref62  "Fathering Your Father and Other Literary Privileges in the Platform Sutra," 1998, p.9. _ftnref63  Bell, David , "Power Influence and Authority, An Essay in Political Linguistics," pp.82-83, quoted in Christopher Collins, Authority Figures: Metaphors of Mastery From the Illiad to the Apocalypse , Rowman and Littlefield, 1996, p.5. _ftnref64  The Sacred Canopy , P.22. _ftnref65  Collins, Christopher, Authority Figures , Rowman and Littlefield, 1996, p. 4. Also see chapter one, "The Glamour of Authority" for a most interesting look at the personal pronoun in relation to systems of authority. _ftnref66  Suzuki, D. T., Introduction, Zen in the Art of Archery , Eugene Herrigel, Random House, 1983, p.VII. _ftnref67  Zen At War , pp.166-174. _ftnref68  The Social Construction of Reality , p. 116. _ftnref69  The Sacred Canopy , p. 85. _ftnref70  The Zen Monastic Experience , p.208.
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/8/2010, 4:08 pm|| |
Josh, thank you for providing these interesting and important articles.
Concerning Zen at War
by Brian Victoria...
In fairness, I include a link to an article on D T Suzuki and the Question of War
(2007), by Kemmyo Taira Sato, which raises some questions over accuracy concerning DTS:
Also a quote from Barbara O'Brien, from an article entitled Zen at War and the Opposite of Equanimity
(2010), re Sawaki Kodo:
- Quote :
- Although on the whole most still believe Daizen's research is important and valuable, as I've said, some criticisms of his translations and scholarship have emerged recently. I've learned through Jundo Cohen that what Sawaki Kodo really said was that Japanese soldiers were fed up with killing people, for example.
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/8/2010, 7:04 pm|| |
Yes, Anne there have been a few articles revisiting Brian Victoria's treatment of D.T. Suzuki. Tiricycle ran this article:
Definitely worth reading Gary Synder's analysis
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/9/2010, 10:02 am|| |
I found reading some of the links really interesting. What's posted here is a bit difficult to read because, at least in my browser, some of the words get "glued" together at regular intervals making it difficult to read quickly.
The content is a good overview of the myth embedded in Western Zen, and its perpetuation. Religion has always mixed myth, symbol, and truth, and I know of no institutional religion that has avoided the confusion and problems inherent in that brew. The ingredient that ignites the brew and keeps it lit is people's own willingness, and even desire, to be be led by another rather than coming to grips with their own mind and its grasping.
Again, thanks for the links, and the confirmatory writeups on what I'd tumbled to in less detailed form elsewhere.
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/10/2010, 11:19 am|| |
Yes, the "glued-together" words need editing after posting. If we learn why this happens we will let you know.
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/10/2010, 6:15 pm|| |
I actually spent a lot of time trying to fix the formatting and break apart some of the words that get linked together. Couldn't quite figure out how to make it work properly. Also the paragraphs get merged together. But I wanted to post the entire article since for most people, it is easier for them to read it here.
All of Stuart's articles can be found on line, just goggle him and then recommend printing out the articles, easier to read. He is very insightful.
Sorry for the formatting issues.
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/17/2010, 9:44 am|| |
Seikai, if you’re passing this way ~
Would you be able to provide clarification on what basis the title of “Master” is given in the OBC? Several of us on this site recall hearing or reading different things, from different people or at different times.
For example, I seem to recall Reverend Master Jiyu explaining (late ‘70s/early ‘80s) that, in addition to fulfilling the criteria for the title of “Teacher”, someone with the title of “Master” had also experienced a first kensho (in Theravada terms, as you have mentioned elsewhere, this begins the first “stage of sainthood”). Not all first kenshos are sudden and dramatic, as Daishin Morgan wrote in Sitting Buddha
: “Many of those who practise long-term and with great sincerity do not experience kensho as a sudden flash of awakening but as a deep inner change that happens over time. This may be so gradual that one is not even aware of it at the time it is taking place. But then, quite without drama, one realizes what has been there from the beginning. For others, a sudden experience plays a significant role in this process and a lot of what has been written about zen is from their perspective.”
More recently, and from a different source to mine, Diana (In Theory and Practice/Institutional Trauma
) “was told that there were several senior monks and masters who had not yet experienced kensho”. Kaizan (Introductions
) also wrote, “My assumption at first was that to be given the title of roshi or master, one would have to have experienced at least once the transcending of subject and object, the dissolution of I, resting in the unborn. Later I heard this was not always the case.”
From an essay by Stuart Lachs, which Josh reproduced above:
- Quote :
- Historically in Japan, "roshi" has indeed sometimes been understood to indicate rank based on spiritual development, while at other times it has been used as a term of address connoting no more than simple respect. There are occasions in Japanese (especially Soto) usage when it merely denotes an administrative rank. In a manner somewhat analogous to the historical bestowal of "Dharma transmission"* for a number of different expedient reasons, the term "roshi" or its various analogs, appears to have meant different things in different circumstances and at different times. There is not, and never has been a central authority in China or Japan or anywhere else that certifies anyone's official passage into roshihood based on any sort of formal criteria, certainly not on the basis of spiritual attainment. Perhaps Soko Morinaga-roshi, the former President of [Rinzai] Hanazono College, said it most aptly, "A roshi is anyone who calls himself by the term and can get other people to do the same."
* I recall RMJ issuing an explanation (?1977/78) that the “transmission” ceremony in (what is now) the OBC was performed when the teacher was satisfied that a monk was truly committed to training, but was not itself indicative of kensho.
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/17/2010, 9:56 pm|| |
Anne -- For what it's worth, Koshin said that "reverend master" was the title we were supposed to use for a monk who had ordained disciples of his/her own. Monks without their own disciples were just "reverend."
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/20/2010, 5:34 pm|| |
I'm not sure about the context of Koshin's remark, but it is not a description of the general policy of the OBC. There are many monks who have been certified as a master, are called Reverend Master, and yet have no disciples of their own. The current Abbess of Shasta Abbey was one of those people for many years. She did later form a master/disciple relationship with a lay person, but had certainly never ordained a monastic disciple. She was called Rev. Master ever since her certification, despite having no disciples. I am using this as an example, but the above is true of quite a few Masters of the OBC.
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/20/2010, 8:11 pm|| |
Thanks, Laura, for the clarification. Koshen had us calling him "reverend master" when he started ordaining disciples.Koshen was ordaining people right and left for a while and maybe still is. I don't know if he was ever certified as a "master," but I assume he was some time ago because he had a very close relationship with RMJK. He did seem to think that the title should only be used for a monk with disciples of his own.
Are the ones who were certified as "master" the ones in the purple robes? I was never sure how they graduated from brown robes to purple robes.
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/21/2010, 12:26 am|| |
Purple robes are the robes of a senior monk, but it is the red tassel that designates a master. They only wear those tassels during formal ceremonies, so you wouldn't generally be able to distinguish a master from another senior monk outside of some sort of formal ceremony. Hope that helps.
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/21/2010, 1:41 am|| |
i found those tassels very annoying........ more layers of rank, authority, not so interesting.....
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/21/2010, 11:26 pm|| |
I thought the red tassels were for monks who had kenshos. After all those years, it's surprising how little I know about what all of those colors and robes and symbols meant. The only thing about the lay minister outfit that I really cared about what the saying on the back of the turquoise kesa: "That which is true is greater than that which is holy." That saying keeps coming back to me now as I try to get up the nerve to write more on this forum. The OBC's rituals and ceremonies and teachings seemed "holy" to me for so long that I have a hard time sorting out what is/was the truth.
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/22/2010, 3:39 am|| |
Generally speaking, having the title of Rev. Master is usually a certification that one has had a kensho. I have heard that sometimes who have not experienced kensho are sometimes named as masters, but I have never understood how this is possible. Not everyone who has had a kensho is named as a Master though, because there are other requirements for that, including being a monk for at least 10 years. At least, that is the case now according to the OBC rules. Monks used to be named as Masters much more quickly in the early days, because RM Jiyu needed the help running the temple, or so I've been told.
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/22/2010, 8:37 pm|| |
Thanks, Laura! We were never told to call anyone "Reverend Master" until RMJK died. Then after her death Koshen let us know that we should call him "Reverend Master." I know some of the monks at Shasta began using that address also. It's quite confusing and I appreciate your clarification!
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/29/2010, 12:08 pm|| |
Here we see that Zen satori is equated with the historical Buddha's great enlightenment, the very zenith of Buddhist attainment.
In I just did a ctrl-f search through Lach's writing here. There are an abundance of mentions of "attain," "attainment," even "spiritual attainment" (with or without quotes). That's ONE way to look at Zen tradition and teaching, as being focused on some thing that some people get (and some don't).
But what is "spiritual attainment," and why hold such an idea? There may be countless old books about spiritual attainment, countless figures in fancy costumes sitting on high chairs who have spoken about it. But the bottom line is that it's each of us who decides whether or not to embrace this concept.
It's not for nothing that every Zen school/practice I know of includes chanting of the phrase, "no attainment with nothing to attain." The teaching/practice doesn't have to be used to promote a "get something" mind. Rather, it can be a pointer to the experience of this very moment.
From that perspective, "the historical Buddha's great enlightenment" is just a nice old story. And "the very zenith of Buddhist attainment" is whatever you're doing right now.
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/29/2010, 6:40 pm|| |
Thanks, Stuart. Welcome to this forum. This was from Stuart Resnick - who has his own blog linked below (not to be confused with Stuart Lachs - the pieces that Stuart Resnick is commenting on.) Just so people aren't confused.
I totally agree with the notion that we / I am much better off abandoning the concepts of attainment, attaining anything.
This organization - Shasta / OBC / Kennett's scene got very focused on kensho experiences and all kinds of other experiences - and things got very confused, to say the least. Kennett made a big deal out of her kensho in Japan - became a very important part of her "story" -- and then, as you can read on some other posts, went through what she called a third kensho that included all kinds of purported visions and other experiences -- most of which I see if a rather different light - and I was there.
I left soon after that in 1977 as you can read in other posts.
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/29/2010, 8:31 pm|| |
Attachment to Attainment was certainly an issue for Kennett. In the summer of 76, when it was not clear how long she would live, she told me that she was very concerned that she would have to have another rebirth rather than enter parinirvana at her death. This was shortly before her 'kenshos'.
In hindsight, I'd critique those kenshos as too full of things attained and no insight into the emptiness of attaining anything. One way to translate kensho is 'seeing into ones true nature', a seeing of things as they truly are. Reminds me of my first sesshin with Shodo Harada Roshi when he said just be who you truly are, reveal that, let the rest go. What he was pointing at and what Kennett was talking about as kensho are different.
Kennett was ill in 76 and her experiences came from being ill. I believe our practise of JinShinJitsu released the repressed energy that then erupted into those famous kenshos. For a short time everything waived in the balance and then landed upside down. A new myth was born and to quote:
- Quote :
Even should we penetrate these doctrines, practises, and then delusive consciousness flows through the 'ternal truth no progress shall we make. If outwardly all calm we do appear and yet with disturbed should be, we are as if a tethered horse or a mouse within a cage.
Lach's article ( http://www2.h-net.msu.edu/~buddhism/aar-bs/1999/lachs.htm ) paints a broad brush over zen's methods and suggests that all of it is without merit. What I have learnt though is do not approach the teacher seeking approval, do not approach the teacher believing you are above approval. Go straight ahead, reveal who you are and encounter the teacher directly. This is the method of zen, it is a method that only uses forms. As soon as novice teachers cling to forms and understandings then zen is not present regardless of the words that are used. It's called 'fox slobber'.
Students of course cling to forms and seek understanding; the worth of the teacher is revealed in how they handle this clinging. Don't fool yourself, you know immediately whether to stay or go - trust that knowing. "If from your experience of your senses basic truth you do not know, then how will you find it no matter how far distant you may walk?"
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/29/2010, 10:38 pm|| |
Being with Kennett through most of these experiences during 1976, it was obvious to me that these were not spontaneous experiences of any kind, but elaborate guided visualizations or imagination. She was desperately trying to avoid and deny her own inner vulnerability and doubts and cling to her position as the Zen "master" and went through this on-going fantasy of Buddhas and divine pillars and past lives as Bodhidharma and so on.
She dragged all her senior disciples into her psycho-drama. As I said elsewhere on this site, normally it is not my business or concern to critique other people's experiences or practice, but since she insisted we were all characters in this play, it became my business. And since she glorified her experiences - in her books and talks and even in stained glass windows, speaking out seems obviously necessary. Isn't there some precept about "do not sell the wine of delusion."
It is one thing to be attached to naturally arising experiences and another to be consumed by fabricated imagination - the second seems much worse, but maybe it is all just slightly different furniture in the ego's doll house.
Who are you without your story?
Bigger, brighter, louder, more holy stories only make matters worse.
And to demand that everyone worship your stories and then even create your own cathedral of stained glass windows -- words fail me......
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/29/2010, 11:38 pm|| |
I've mentioned before Buddhist Geeks. www.buddhistgeeks.com Terrific forum and free podcasts that you can download directly from their site or through itunes.
Here are links to two podcast interviews with Stuart Lachs. There are many other on the site that you might find of interest.
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/30/2010, 5:41 am|| |
Josh what are the stained glass windows, Surely not of kennett? surely not in the zendo?
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/30/2010, 8:48 am|| |
yes, there were literally stained glass windows made depicting her "visions" from the lotus blossom book
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/30/2010, 9:05 am|| |
I found that odd as well, both before and after reading the book. It seemed strange to want a public display of something that, to me, would have been a very private and personal experience.
But then, wasn't she creating her own religion, with herself as the basis for it --
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/30/2010, 9:25 am|| |
the analogy I used before - the ego's doll house now decorated with stained glass windows
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/30/2010, 12:13 pm|| |
I wonder how many people can see through it
The stained galss windows!
Sorry about that a new years joke for you!
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/30/2010, 12:48 pm|| |
To be completely accurate, the windows are faux stained glass. It was way too expensive to do such elaborate depcitions in "real" stained glass. All the windows in the zendo were done from plates in HTLB. And at one point, all the paintable walls in the community were painted "kensho blue", a color that, if I remember correctly, played a predominant role in her experience.
Josh, I'm a big fan of Buddhist Geeks. I'm also quite attached to www.dharmaseed.org. Just last night I listened to an interesting talk on the Abhidamma by Jack Kornfield. Now there's a fellow I think Koshin would have a hard time convincing that mediation and psychology are in opposition. Jack was a a monk in the forest tradition for years under Achan Chah. And when he disrobed, he came back to cofound IMS, Spirit Rock and, as an aside get, his PhD in psychology.
Oh, and then there's Gil Fronsdal as well, also a zen monk for many years and also a PhD, but in Buddhist Studies. There is a wealth of teaching out here, and I'm always excited when I discover a new site. Knowledge is a good thing in my opinion, and Gensho's postings here are leading me to further investigate Harada Roshi.
By the way, Gensho, were you the Gensho leading this last retreat up there?
warm regards to all,
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/30/2010, 1:21 pm|| |
Hi Josh ~
Can you say what gave you the impression that Jiyu Kennett's 1976 visions "were not spontaneous experiences of any kind, but elaborate guided visualizations or imagination"?
In my experience, quite elaborate imagery can arise at various points in the course of training, pictorially expressing aspects of ones present state of mind ~ at such times, one may be quite amazed at the spontaneous artistic and epic inventiveness of the symbolism, which was not something deliberately created. This imagery is not itself "the journey": its inclusion in HGLB
may convey something of the zeitgeist
~ you mentioned "divine pillars" for example ~ but the narrative points to a process that was more than just imagery.
In writing on kenshos, in HGLB
, Jiyu Kennett affirms:
- Quote :
- At any stage of training it is very dangerous to cling to [visual and other sensory] experiences, whether they be makyo or valid. The valid ones should be understood clearly and then left behind; the purpose of meditation is the harmonisation of body and mind - that experiences do, or do not, occur whilst this is happening is neither here nor there. Dogen Zenji, to my knowledge, never had visual experiences; Keizan Zenji had many...Always one feels what happens during the third kensho.
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/30/2010, 3:47 pm|| |
Mokuan I am a bit staggard on these windows, this new to me.
When you say plates,do you mean drawings from the book?
How many windows were there?
Did they reflect in the zendo?
please tell me a bit more
I remember in the zendo in japan,in the non sleeping side,the windows opened up with sort of lattice on, no glass, when it was cold,you had to sit deep
Puzzingling again is the color kensho blue, I am amazed how arrogant
As you know the koan system uses checking koans sometimes, you pass mu,and are asked,what color is it then
so there is you answer kensho blue
you might of heard the sound of one hand clapping
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/30/2010, 4:27 pm|| |
In the sense that all experiences are like clouds passing through the sky, and that clinging to memories of past experiences or hopes of future ones is a cause of suffering... there's no exception made if the experience is spontaneous vs guided, or feeling vs visual.
Yeah, yeah, I know. There are certain experiences that are written about in dusty old books that a lot of people believe in. Authority figures in fancy costumes sit on high chairs and speak beautiful words about them. People start treating them as if they're truth, even though "old and popular" only means old and popular.
The stories ("That's a level 7 experience, which can lead to a level 4.5 experience...") are interesting to many of us at many times; the stories wouldn't exist if there weren't plenty of people who want to hear them. Still, we always have the choice to believe in what we're perceiving and doing right now, rather than in a story.
The teaching that all phenomena pass into emptiness is such a clear part of the Zen tradition... it's interesting that even people who practice for years can fall into making this or that experience into something special. Apparently, delusions arise endlessly.
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/30/2010, 9:10 pm|| |
- randomstu wrote:
- In the sense that all experiences are like clouds passing through the sky, and that clinging to memories of past experiences or hopes of future ones is a cause of suffering... there's no exception made if the experience is spontaneous vs guided, or feeling vs visual.
I believe you are missing the point of sharing stories, which is to inspire. I seem to remember there's a traditional Zen koan about the teacher being wrong if he speaks and wrong if he doesn't speak. There is the potential for misunderstanding either way, so the teacher makes a choice and accepts the karma which ensues. RMJK shared her stories - they helped some people and they became a hindrance to others. I see RMJK simply as a human being who had experiences she needed to have. She both learned from them and turned them into a personal story - also typically human. I feel no need to either glorify or tear down her story. To the extent I was inspired I am grateful. To the extent I was enthralled I learned the necessity of taking back my power and living my own story.
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/31/2010, 12:00 am|| |
Hi Chisan Michael,
It feels kind of voyeuristic, but the above link will take you to Shasta's website and to pictures of JK specifically. About the ninth picture in will be the hondo and you can see the painted glass windows. These scenes are taken directly from the drawings in her book HTGLB. At the time I was there, they were on both sides of the hondo and continued into the zendo. Now that I stop and think about it, it is pretty strange.
"Kensho blue" is like a light tourquoise. The lay ministers' rakusus are also kensho blue, only they're a deeper shade of tourquoise.
Hope this helps,
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/31/2010, 3:02 am|| |
Thanks for that link,I assume the stained glass window are the small arch shaped ones high on the wall. it gives me a bit of an impression. Were any actually of her?
The collections of photos were quite good some nice shots.
The alms round seemed a bit peculiar,they seem to be wearing theravadin alms round attire,
I did the alms round in Japan, you wore shoes made from straw or reeds, the monk had to find me the largest pair of these shoes,which were about 3 or 4 sizes too small,we walked very fast calling out HO my feet got a bit beat up. I think I preferred the images of Kennett when she was at Sojiji and the early era, I was not so keen on the more recent photos.
Also it seemed to me that any photo of any oneconcerntrating in a ceremony ,seemed to portray a blank emotionless expression,which one can say is fine,but there seemed no compassion in their faces, a little bit dead. the grounds were very beautiful , I was not aware of all the colours either of all the robes,it has changed quite a bit I enjoyed looking at them. Thanks
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/31/2010, 4:36 am|| |
Mokuan,I must tell you a related story.
Years ago i worked at a delinquent black centre, it was a rough place, which eventually was fire bombed. There were only 3 white people who ever entered.
One was Prince Charles, one was me, and one was a policeman the first to rush the building during a raid, the doors were slammed behind him , by the time he was thrown out and rushed to hospital, they could not find his testicles, as he had been kicked so hard,they were up in his body. That was it a violent bunch,whose smallest crime was weighing out weed to sell. I fortunately got on well with them, they called me Honkey, I did like them, their music, and actually had enormous sympathy for their situation .
Any way I met a very lively American black girl, who was leading a drug rehabilitation programme ,which I found sad to see , how the youing people were struggling to pull, back a life, which did not have much hope in it in the first place.
She told me that she had been to Shasta before it was Shasta Abbey, she described it very accurately, and she said the walls were all painted pink, the colour of the 'happy hum' I can't remember why she went there or what it was, or even if it was actually Shasta, but she did describe it.
There were 3 murders by the ongoing crime youths in that area this week, it reminds me of, what was a poignant time , i met some lovely people, and some bombed out people, some users and abusers, but some black kids, that were trying to make a difference to a pretty bombed out situation
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|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/31/2010, 10:30 am|| |
Dear Chisan Michael,
You have had some interesting experiences in your life. Me, too. If I ever make it to the UK, I'll look you up and we can swap stories. I used to live in a remote of part of Alaska -- no roads in and no roads out. I worked in an emergency shelter for kids who had to be pulled out their homes or villages immediately. They were primarily Yup'ik Eskimo and Athabsacan kids. I had a great time and I really enjoyed the job. Sadly, though, too many of those kids are dead now either by their own hand or someone else's. But when we get together, Chisan Michael, I'll tell you all the great things about these kids. They had my heart.
* * *
Putrid pink! I'd forgotten all about the pink. Yes, everything was painted Peptobismal pink by the previous owners, but I don't remember who they were. It was a number of years before my time.
And as far as any of the painted glass, they were all scenes from HTGLB, which were representative of RMJK but none of them had her actual likeness.
Posts : 1640
Join date : 2010-11-17
|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs 12/31/2010, 12:29 pm|| |
good work you did in Alaska, I wonder why these people ( I have never heard of Athabsacan before) changed,I doubt if their race or tribe was always irrisponsible. My first thought was alcohol. Alcohol, our present to the world,seems to have done a lot of destroying. But you may tell me otherwise ,I think it is very sad to see these sights. The black kids I was involved with , tended to have a problem from social repression,a bit of alcohol,and a lot of weed,
So the girl was right about the pink,so we have had peptobismal pink,kensho blue at shasta,I wonder what the next color will be
|Subject: Re: On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs || |
On Zen Masters - some thoughts from Stuart Lachs
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